Volume 15, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2021

The n-Hosoya Polynomials of the Square of a Path and of a Cycle

Ahmed M. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168250

The n-Hosoya polynomial of a connected graph G of order t is defined by:
Hn (G;x) = ∑ Cn (G;x) xk, where, Cn(G,k) is the number of pairs (v,S), in which |S| = n -1, 3 ≤ n ≤ t, v  V(G) ,  S  V (G) , such that dn(v,S) = k , for each 0 ≤ k ≤ δn. In this paper, we find the n-Hosoya polynomial of the square of a path and of the square of a cycle. Also, the n-diameter and n-Wiener index of each of the two graphsare determined

Schultz and Modified Schultz Polynomials for Vertex – Identification Chain and Ring – for Hexagon Graphs

Mahmood M. Abdullah; Ahmed M. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 25-38
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168251

The aim of this paper is to find polynomials related to Schultz, and modified Schultz indices of vertex identification chain and ring for hexagonal rings (6 – cycles). Also to find index and average index of all of them.

Data Modeling and Design Implementation for CouchDB Database

Shaymaa Ahmed Razoqi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168252

In the modern database environment, new non-traditional database types appear that are Not SQL database (NoSQL). This NoSQL database does not rely on the principles of the relational database. Couchdb is one of the NoSQL Document-Oriented databases, in Couchdb the basic element was a document. All types of databases have the same conceptual data model and it was deferent in the logical and physical model, this mean UML class diagram can be used in the  NoSQL design at a conceptual level, that is, it can be used to design a Couchdb database. In this research, we suggest a method to model and implement the conceptual level of the Couchdb database from the UML class diagram in using simple way depending on the association types. Depending on the types of relationships between classes, we can have more than one database model to choose from and find the most suitable for the system to be designed. A medical clinic database was proposed to implement the transfer steps according to the proposed method. Three database models were designed and implemented to study the suitability of the proposed transfer method.

Survey on Human Activity Recognition using Smartphone

Adeeba KH; Laheeb M. Ibrahim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 55-67
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168253

The field of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an active research field in which methods are being developed to understand human behavior by interpreting features obtained from various sources, these activities can be recognized using interactive sensors that are affected by human movement. Sensor can embed elements within Smartphones or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). The great increase in smart phone users and the increase in the sensor ability of these smart phones, and users usually carry their smartphones with them. This fact makes HAR more important and accepted.
In this survey, A number of previous studies were studied and analyzed, where we prepared a comparison of the research works conducted over the period 2010-2020 in human activity recognition using Smartphone sensors. Comparison charts highlight their most important aspects such as a type of sensor used, activities, sensor placement, HAR- system type (offline, online), computing device, classifier (type of algorithms) and system accuracy levels.

Existence and Uniqueness of Positive Solution for Boundary Value Problem of Fractional Differential Equations

Noora L. Housain; Hanan S. Mohammed; Nadia A. Abdulrazaq

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 69-77
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168348

The theory of Banach contraction and the fixed point theorems of Schaefer are used to explain the behavior of positive solutions for the nonlinear differential equation of fractional order and the minimal values. Our main result is the presence and uniqueness of positive solution of the above equations. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results.

Solve Partial Differential Equations using the Banach Contraction Method and Improve Results Using the Trapezoidal Rule

Ahmed E. Ghitheeth; Hiba Sh. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 79-85
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168254

In this paper, the Banach contraction method (BCM) was hybridized with the base of the trapezoid (TR) to solve non-linear partial differential equations. The results obtained from (BCM) were improved by (TR). The results obtained from (BCM -TR) proved the efficiency of this method compared to the default method (BCM). This was done by calculating the mean0square0error (MSE) and estimating the absolute0maximum0error (MAE).

The Basis Number of Symmetric Difference of K2 with Some Ladder Graphs

Ahmed M. Ali; Rasha S. Hasan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168256

The basis number of a graph  G  is  defined to be the least integer  k  such that  G  has  a  k-fold cycle  basis.  We investigate the basis number of symmetric difference of K2 with a ladder graph Lm , acircular ladder, and a Möbius ladder.

Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problem MHD in a Polar Coordinates

Ahmed M.J. Jassim; Ahmed S.J. Amen

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168257

In this paper, we studied a flow of fluid in a pipe under the effect of electromagnetic field in a polar coordinate, be done build a mathematical model which  represented by system of  two dimensional non-linear partial differential equations and we solved it by using  Alternating Directions Implicit method (ADI) which is one of the finite differences method, and from the numerical solution indicated the behavior of  temperature distribution inside the pipe, be done explication the influence of  Rayleigh number and Prandtl number as well as the influence of Eckert number upon the behavior of  temperature distribution are also done through the energy equation  in polar coordinate, we arrived to steady state from unsteady state, we find the behavior of fluid flow inside the pipe  and also we studied the influence of  Hartmann  number  upon the behavior of  fluid flow in pipe and all this done through the motion equation in polar coordinate.

Estimation of Non-Normal Process Capability Indices

Huda Hamed Mohamed Taib; Ban Alani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 35-56
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168260

The important and common applications of  process capability indices (PCI’s) is the process capability ratio  and the process capability index , and the use of these measures in practical applications is based on the assumption that the process is under statistical control and that the outputs of that process follow the normal distribution. In practice, however, there are many cases in which the outputs of the process are not follow normal distribution, in such cases, calculating PCI’s will lead to misleading results. In this paper, the non-normal production process capability was evaluated. The evaluation process was conducted using four methods: The first method involved the use of Box-Cox power transformation to normal distribution of data and then calculating indicators of the capability process by traditional methods. The second method is by using the weighted variance method, and the third method is by using the Clements’ method based on the percentiles calculation of data, and the fourth method is based on the use of the Darling-Anderson goodness of fit test to accommodate some of the probability distributions of the original data, this test shows that the log-normal distribution is the most appropriate distribution for the data The results showed that although the process is stable and under statistical control, it is not capable based on the value of the process capability  index that did not exceed (65%), as the percentage defect units, which is outside the specifications, is large and located between (3.6%) and (13.4%). The results also showed that there is a convergence in the results of the PCI’s calculated by all methods, and that the Clements’ method is the best method as it gives the highest values ​​for the PCI’s. The research recommended studying and calculating other PCI’s like, , , and CMA(τ,v). One of the recommendations for future research and studies is to do a theoretical study to compare the mentioned methods and choose the best ones based on some statistical criteria.

Analyzing Crime Networks: A Complex Network-Based Approach

Husam B. Sultan; Basim Mohammed Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 57-73
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168261

This article analyzed the crime network of Nineveh province based on the concepts of Complex Networks. To this end, two networks were created; the first represented the crimes that were committed in Nineveh province, while the second was the network of crime regions. These two networks were visualized and then analyzed using network centrality measurements. The results showed that several pairs of crimes had strong relations to each other. Moreover, it was found that some crime regions were considered as the core of crimes in the province. The results also showed that few regions were considered as the most dangerous parts of the province and they had strong tendencies to replicate their behaviour to other regions. Finally, the authors believe this is the first kind of works that take the crime network of Nineveh province as a case study

Study the Relationship between the University Student and Teacher using the Principal Component Analysis and Genetic Algorithms

Sahar E. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 75-100
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168262

Multivariate data analysis is one of the popular techniques, and among them is the Principal Component Analysis, or PCA, is a dimensionality-reduction method which is the process of converting a large number of related variables to a smaller number of unrelated factors, that still contains most of the information in the large set. Therefore, any phenomenon that consist of a large group of variables that are difficult to treat with in their initial form. The process of the interpreting these variables become complex process, so reducing these variables to a smaller is easier to deal with which is the aspiration of every researcher working in the field of principal component analysis. In this research, a multivariate data collection process was carried out which are relates to the nature of education and the relationship between the university student and the teacher, then studying and analyzing by Principal component analysis model, which is a technique used to summarize and condense data through the use of bonding software SPSS,2020.
Thus, it will be illustrious that this research will fall into a concept Data Mining, and is also abbreviated, and then it is realized using genetic algorithms procedure, in latest version MATLAB 2019B, Application of Genetic Algorithms using simulation software with latest release MATLAB 2019, using the Multiple linear regression equation method.
Multiple linear regression procedure to find the arrangement of independent variables within each factor of the factors obtained, by calculating the weight of the independent variable (Beta). Overall results were obtained for the eigenvalues of the stored correlation matrix, and the study required a Statistical analysis (PCA) method, and by reducing the number of the variables without losing much information about the original variables. The goal is to simplify their understanding. The disclosure of its structure and interpretation, in addition to reaching a set of conclusions that were discussed in detail, In addition to important recommendation.

Comparison Study for Three Compression Techniques (Wavelet, Contourlet and Curvelet Transformation)

Shahad M. Sulaiman; Hadia Saleh Abdullah

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 101-114
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168263

Researches and studies on compressing digital images are aiming to make it easier to deal with networks, communications and Internet by reducing the size of the multimedia files transferred, and reducing the execution time and transmission time. In this research, the lossy compression method was adopted as one of the solutions that reduce the size of the data required to compress the image, through the process of compression of digital image data using Discrete Wavelet Transform algorithms using Haar filter, and Contourlet. Using Laplace and Directional Filter, Curvelet transformation using FDCT- Wrapping Technology .The performance of the algorithms used in the proposed research is also evaluated using a Ratio Compression (RC) scale, As well as the Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) scale, the mean sequence error (MSE) scale, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) scale, and finally, the Normalization correlation (NC) scale. Correspondence between the original image and the recovered image after compression, in order to choose the best algorithm that achieves the best compression ratio of the image and maintains the parameters of the recovered image based on the standards (MSE, PSNR, SNR, COR and CR) used with the three algorithms, and the results showed that the Curvelet transformation algorithm achieved : best compression ratio, but at the expense of image quality.

Using Ant Algorithm to Find the Optimal Critical Path of a Projects Network

Ziyad A. Mohammed; Sama T. Al_Obaidy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 115-130
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168264

Intelligent techniques to solve the problem of decision-making in project management, apart from the methods of operations research, the choice was made on one of the algorithms of crowd intelligence represented by the Ant Colony Optimization  algorithm (ACO)to solve the matter of finding the optimal critical path for the enterprise business network because the business network is more Networks tradition the behavior of the ant colony system to find the optimal critical path for the Critical Path Network(CPN) as. You own a project beginning contract (the first event) equivalent to an ant hill.The project end contract (the last event) is equivalent to the food site.The matter of finding the optimal critical path for the project is equivalent to the search process to find an optimal (the shortest) path between the nest and the food site.
The program ANTOCPN, written in Matlab language on a virtual business network. The program is featuring by its efficiency, accuracy of results, and the possibility of applying it to any business network, regard of the degree of complexity in terms of the number of paths (activities), whether real or imaginary, smoothly and easily. Also, the results of the ANTOCPN algorithm program were compared with the results of the genetic algorithm program for the same question GAOCPN for previous research, and the ant algorithm proved its worth in terms of speed in obtaining the optimal solution.

A Multimedia Medical Expert System for Human Diseases Diagnosis

Ahmed Kh. Ameen; Baydaa Ibraheem Khaleel

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 131-146
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168265

With the great expansion and development of computer science and its systems. Its applications are used in most areas of life, which facilitated the solution of many simple and complex issues, as it was used in multiple fields, including the medical field, where computer applications were designed to help the specialist doctor in his work and reduce the time in diagnosis. In this research, an expert system is built, which is one of the artificial intelligence techniques, using the advanced (forward) sequencing algorithms also called data-directed inference, and the algorithm. Backward (backward) sequence, also called target-directed inference, to diagnose the most common diseases to which a person is exposed. It is supported by multimedia, which includes (text, images, audio, and video) to reach a solution to the problem through dialogue with the user and rely on the stored knowledge as a base on which the inference engine represented by the two algorithms to reach to solutions, instructions and recommendations to diagnose the disease and give the appropriate treatment. These solutions are given to users in several forms using multimedia (text, pictures, audio and video) and this system is used by people who cannot reach a doctor or hospital for any reason. This system consists of major parts, which are the knowledge base that organizes the collection of facts the laws and the inference engine, which in turn include the Forward Chaining and Backward Chaining algorithms.
These diseases in order to reach a diagnosis of the disease with high accuracy, and this leads to reducing medical errors. The proposed system can be used as a substitute for the doctor in diagnosing some diseases in general and some diseases in particular. Which is useful in cases where the doctor is absent due to natural conditions or emergency situations, or when it is difficult for the patient to reach hospitals or health centers.

Hiding Encryption Text by DNA using Exploiting Modification Direction Algorithm

Mohammad S. Hashim; Melad jader saeed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 147-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168266

Local networks and the Internet increase day by day, and a large amount of information is transferred across these networks every day resulting in a dramatic increase in the information security threats.
Therefore, it was necessary to use the techniques that ensure the security and the confidentiality of the transferred information. Secret writing is a general term which is used to refer to the protection of information from attackers, and it includes two types of widely used technologies: cryptography and steganography.
The research has presented a security model that fulfils the requirements of confidentiality and safety of the data transferred between the parties of the communication process. This model includes two phases that aim to provide a high level of confidentiality and security for the secret text. New methods have been used to combine cryptography with steganography to attain a high level of secrecy and security where the secret text was encrypted in an innovative and modified way by encoding DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid( and hiding the resulting encrypted text inside images by means of EMD) Exploiting Modification Direction) method.
This method has been applied on a number of images and texts, and the measurement of PNSR (88.5382, 87.0293, 97.8257), MSE (0.000015, 0.000019, 0.00004), CO (0) and Q-Factor (0.3521,3458,0.3354) values in the resulting hidden images have been yielded good results.

Designing an Electronic Platform for the Distribution and Managing Undergraduate Projects

Osama O. Mohammed; Shayma Mustafa Mohi-Aldeen

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 159-177
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168267

Our study in this research came as a proposal for an electronic platform to manage projects that graduate the fourth stage through which all tasks were transferred from the traditional system to an electronic system. As the system collects project proposals by the teachers and follows up the process of selecting them by the students, then managing the discussion process and sending the evaluation electronically by the members of the discussion committees and by connecting to the internal network (Router) via mobile or computer to the main database so that the system administrator prints the results The evaluation is processed electronically and submitted to the examination committee. The system was developed structurally according to the principle of the server and the client, and the wireless network was used to connect the system devices to transfer information between the server and the client. The system provided a protection method for system information and a way for users to enter, relying on efficient investigation methods to ensure safe access to all system interfaces. The system was tested on real information for the Computer Science Department, and the system showed its efficiency in achieving the required goals, completing the tasks, and issuing results accurately, quickly and without errors. Programming languages used in the design (C # for design interfaces + SQL Server for distributed database + PHP for web pages)

Electronic System for Managing Theses of Computer Science College

Dhafar H. Al-Ali; Auday Hashim Saeed Al Wattar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 179-195
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168268

This research paper includes designing and implementing of an Electronic system for  managing theses of  College of Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Mosul, using replication, C # language and MS SQL Server 2008 databases to be a stable work basis that can be relied upon in the departments’ work as it facilitates the higher administrative bodies in the departments and the deanship Obtaining the required results quickly and accurately, which facilitates and contributes to making the right decisions at the appropriate time and required with the ease of preparing special reports for each student, lecturer and thesis and printing them which it will help the departments head and the scientific committee to complete them if requested, as well as provide various statistics, and to improve administrative efficiency for thesis, the problem of losing thesis data and preserving it from human and natural disasters has been overcome by applying the principle of replication.

Study on Turning Arabic Text into Spoken Words

Abdulwahhab F. Shareef; Riyadh Z. Mahmoud

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 197-209
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168269

Language was a means of communication between members of a single community, so that some of them would express to each other their ideas and thoughts, and a common characteristic of that society was defined, and the origin of the word was derived from (rhetoric, idle), if he repealed the matter and spoke about it, and the ancients knew it that language: (It is what expresses It contains all the people for their belongings). The ancients went in their definition of a language to the characteristics of their language with which they communicate, without referring to the Arabic language as a language among the living languages ​​that are circulating among them. Arabs and Arabs (whoever inhabited the country and its island, or uttered the language of its people), and to it returns the percentage of the Arabic language, which is one of the Semitic languages. Which spread in the Arabian Peninsula, and the writing came to denote what is in the minds of notables.
This research presents a computer application that depends on human input to pronounce the Arabic letters
The system consists of two phases, the first stage is the axis of creating a database for Arabic language characters and their storage locations, as well as the type of formulas for those letters when the initial processing was performed.
The second stage is the process of comparing the entered letter from the text with the corresponding sound and placing it in a storage so that we can then process it. In the practical part of the research, we used a comparison between the results of four methods to obtain the least possible execution time with the least pauses in speech, which are the combinative method, the smoothing method, the method of nesting speech, and a hybrid method between smoothing and interfering together.
We start by entering in the input text box and using the SpellLetter function, which we use for the purpose of processing and pronunciation, where the input is of three types, either it is a char, or it is an array of characters (String), or it is numbers between zero and nine Num), and in the case that the entry was not For these three types, the entry is wrong, for example, non-Arabic letters or special symbols, for example.,And if the entry was correct, each letter is taken with its accent. This means that we take two positions each time.
Using Matlab (R 2018a) to build the proposed system and it was implemented using a computer. Portable running under the environment of the operating system (Microsoft Windows 10).