Volume 14, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2020

The Restricted Detour Polynomial of the Theta Graph

Herish O. Abdullah; Ivan D. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164664

The restricted detour distance  D*(u,v) between two vertices u and v of a connected graph G is the length of a longest u - v path P in G such that <V(P)> = P. The main goal of this paper is to obtain the restricted detour polynomial of the theta graph. Moreover, the restricted detour index of the theta graph will also be obtained.

Self-Scaling Variable Metric in Constrained Optimization

Eman Hamed; Marwa W. Hamad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164673

In this paper, we investigated of a new self-scaling by use quasi-Newton method and conjugate gradient method. The new algorithm satisfies a quasi-newton condition and mutually conjugate, and practically proved its efficiency when compared with the well-known algorithms in this domain, by depending on efficiency measure, number of function, number of iteration, and number of constrained, NOF, NOI and NOC.

Family GPS Tracking for Android

Mafaz M. Al-Anezi; Hisham D. Zebari; Saad N. Birfkani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164674

In smart phone field, the security, tracking lost and kidnapping prevention are one of the main areas in current days. Today family members safety is more important when they are outside home. So, there is a need for a tracking system for kids where the parents can monitor their kids at anytime from anywhere.
These security goals are achieved by the Android System, Global System for Mobile (GSM), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Short Message Service (SMS) technologies.
The proposed application must be installed in all family member's smart phones, and these smart phones will use GPS services without need for internet connection, where the GPS is used to locate the child specifically and to track the child whenever he changes his place. The location obtained by only depending on GSM by sending SMS which contain a link of Google map shows the information of the position. The application also has the ability to trigger a help SMS to his parents when the child is in a dangerous situation by using his headphone, and this is considering a help message in real time.

Using Cohen Sutherland Line Clipping Algorithm to Generate 3D Models from 2D

Marah M. Taha

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164675

This paper provides an efficient algorithm to generate three dimensional objects from simple uncomplicated 2D environment, lead to reduce processor effort, limit of using complex mathematical operations. Most of the previous researches used the idea of ​​drawing by vanishing point to generate 3D objects from 2D environment, But the algorithm designed in this paper provides an idea of ​​how to draw three-dimensional shapes from two-dimensional drawings when applying Cohen Sutherland Line clipping algorithm, so that a basic two-dimensional shape is inserted from a set of points connected with each other must be within vision borders with a vanishing point outside of vision that is connected with all points of basic shape to consist a group of lines with partial intersections. So that any point has specific limited vision border which represents one of its coordinates of depth vertex, finally 3d object is generated when all clipping processes are completed to obtain other coordinates for all points.

The Homotopy Analysis Method in Turning Point Problems

Rasha F. Ahmed; Waleed M. Al-Hayani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 51-65
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164676

In this paper, we used the homotopy analysis method to ordinary differential equations of type boundary value problems with a parameter representing turning points."To show the high accuracy of the solution results, we compare the numerical results applying the standard homotopy analysis method with the integral equation and the numerical solution of the Simpson and Trapezoidal rules."Also, we give the estimated order of convergence (local) and the global estimated order of convergence along the interval.

HPPD: A Hybrid Parallel Framework of Partition-based and Density-based Clustering Algorithms in Data Streams

Ammar Thaher Abd Alazeez

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 67-82
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164677

Data stream clustering refers to the process of grouping continuously arriving new data chunks into continuously changing groups to enable dynamic analysis of segmentation patterns. However, the main attention of research on clustering methods till now has been concerned with alteration of the methods updated for static datasets and changes of the available modified methods. Such methods presented only one type of final output clusters, i.e. convex or non-convex shape clusters. This paper presents a novel two-phase parallel hybrid clustering (HPPD) algorithm that identify convex and non-convex groups in online stage and mixed groups in offline stage from data stream. In this work, we first receive the data stream and apply pre-processing step to identify convex and non-convex clusters. Secondly, apply modified EINCKM to present online output convex clusters and modified EDDS to present online output non-convex clusters in parallel scheme. Thirdly, apply adaptive merging strategy in offline stage to give last composed output groups. The method is assessed on a synthetic dataset. The output results of the experiments have authenticate the activeness and effectiveness of the method.

Studying the Coefficient Curvelet for Aerial Image Segmentation

Nagham A. Sultan; Khalil I. Alsaif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 83-95
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164880

Currently, there are many approaches for image transformations that are developed to cover the new technology in the huge amount of data treatment. In this paper, a study on Curvelet transformation coefficients was performed based on the aerial image to apply segmentation. This paper applies a lot of modifications on cut off frequencies on the filters, which is used to decompose the image on curvelet transformation. Two approaches are proposed and tested to look for the best segmentation result; the first one is based on designing filters manually, while the second evaluates the filter coefficients depending on the selected shape of the filters. The first technique gives acceptable segmentation and the second reaches the optimal result. One of the most important results is that the cut of frequency has a high effect on the segmentation; in addition, choosing filter parameters depended on the coefficients dimension of the curvelet transformation. Finally, the results show that the first approach underperformed the second one.

Design Simulation System to Simplifying Boolean Equation by using Karnaugh Map

Elham H. Aziz

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 97-115
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164680

Simulation is one of most important technique used for learning, it makes learning possible without cost and provides best way to improve the practical skills for learners. The purpose of this  research  was to design program  to simulate  processing of simplifying  Boolean expression by using kranaugh- map depending on rules and procedures applied to Boolean equation in order  minimize  it to obtain  final optimal expression with minimum  number of  variables ,and reduction in  equipment  that leads to  reduce cost,  and this research recommend to use modern methods in education which  Simulation programs is one of this method to  improve E-learning  to keep up with universities  which care to use E-learning with traditional education and make student more interactive with education progress. 

Collaboration Networks: University of Mosul Case Study

Basim Mohammed Mahmood; Nagham A. Sultan; Karam H. Thanoon; Dhiya Sh. Khadhim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 117-133
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164679

Scientific research is currently considered as one of the key factors in the development of our life. It plays a significant role in managing our business, study, and work in a more flexible and convenient way. The most important aspect when it comes to scientific research is the level of collaboration among scientific researchers. This level should be maximized as much as possible in order to obtain more reliable solutions for our everyday issues. To this end, it is needed to understand the collaboration patterns among researchers and come up with convenient strategies for strengthening the scientific collaboration. The scientific collaboration among the University of Mosul researchers–which is our case in this study–has not yet been investigated or analyzed. In this work, we aim at revealing the patterns of the scientific collaboration of the scientific colleges in the University of Mosul. We generate a co-authorship network for the university; the generated network is based on the data we collected from each individual researcher. The generated co-authorship network reveals many interesting facts regarding the collaboration patterns among the university researchers.

Medical Image Classification Using Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Sami H. Ismael; Shahab W. Kareem; Firas H. Almukhtar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 135-147
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164682

The different types of white blood cells equips us an important data for diagnosing and identifying of many diseases. The automation of this task can save time and avoid errors in the identification process. In this paper, we explore whether using shape features of nucleus is sufficient to classify white blood cells or not. According to this, an automatic system is implemented that is able to identify and analyze White Blood Cells (WBCs) into five categories (Basophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, and Neutrophil). Four steps are required for such a system; the first step represents the segmentation of the cell images and the second step involves the scanning of each segmented image to prepare its dataset. Extracting the shapes and textures from scanned image are performed in the third step. Finally, different machine learning algorithms such as (K* classifier, Additive Regression, Bagging, Input Mapped Classifier, or Decision Table) is separately applied to the extracted (shapes and textures) to obtain the results. Each algorithm results are compared to select the best one according to different criteria’s.

Predicting Bank Loan Risks Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Maan Y. Alsaleem; Safwan O. Hasoon

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 149-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164686

Bank loans play a crucial role in the development of banks investment business. Nowadays, there are many risk-related issues associated with bank loans. With the advent of computerization systems, banks have become able to register borrowers' data according their criteria. In fact, there is a tremendous amount of borrowers’ data, which makes the process of load management a challenging task. Many studies have utilized data mining algorithms for the purpose of loans classification in terms of repayment or when the loans are not based on customers’ financial history. This kind of algorithms can help banks in making grant decisions for their customers. In this paper, the performance of machine learning algorithms has been compared for the purpose of classifying bank loan risks using the standard criteria and then choosing (Multilayer Perceptron) as it has given best accuracy compared to RandomForest, BayesNet, NaiveBayes and DTJ48 algorithms.

The Pandemic COVID-19 Infection Spreading Spatial Aspects: A Network-Based Software Approach

Basim Mohammed Mahmood; Marwah M. Dabdawb

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 159-170
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164684

Coronavirus or what has been termed COVID-19 is one of the infectious diseases that have been recently classified as a pandemic. Currently, it is considered as the activist and the most dangerous disease that is rapidly spreaded around the world causing thousands of death cases. COVID-19 spreads between people through the contact with the infected ones when they sneeze, cough, or droplets of saliva. In this article, we investigated the impact of the spatial aspects and the movement patterns on COVID-19 infection spreading. We considered three aspects, namely, mobility patterns, curfew (stay-at-home) impact, and the distribution of people within places. The results show that spatial aspects can be considered as one of the factors that play a significant role in spreading the virus.

Applying Standard JPEG 2000 Part One on Image Compression

Maha Abdul Rahman Hasso; Sahlah Abed Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 13-33
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164796

In this paper, has been proposed Algorithm for standard JPEG2000 part one for image compression. The proposed Algorithm was executed by  using  MATLAB7.11  environment,  applied  these  algorithm  on  the gray and color images for type of the images natural, medical, Graphics images  and  remote  sensing.  Dependence  on  the  Peak  Signal-to-Noise Ratio  (PSNR)  for  comparing  the  result  of  the  proposed  Algorithm  by using the Daubechies filters 5/3 tap filter and 9/7 tap filter  Biothogonal , Another  comparison  is  held  concerning  the  obtained  results  of   the algorithm    of    ModJPEG  and  Color-SPECK. Proved  the  processing results Efficiency performance of   proposed Algorithm.

On MP-Rings

Raida D. Mahmood; Azhar M. Hajo

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 35-40
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164797

An ideal I of a ring R is said to be right (left) Pure if for every  , there is    such that  . A ring R is said to be right (left) MP-ring, if every maximal right (left) ideal of R is a left (right) pure. In this paper have been studied some new properties of MP-rings, there connections with strongly regular rings.
Some of the main result of the present work are as follows:
1- Let R be aright MP-ring, r(a) is a W-ideal for all  then
a- Every essential ideal is a direct summand.  
b- R is strongly regular ring. 
2- Let R be aright MP-ring. If R is right almost abelian left NBF ring, then R is strongly regular.

A New Formula for Conjugate Gradient in Unconstrained Optimization

Hussein A. Wali; Khalil K. Abbo

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 41-52
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164798

The conjugate gradient method is an important part of the methods of optimization that are not constrained by local convergence characteristics. In this research, a new formula for the conjugated coefficient is derived depending on the linear structure. The new method fulfills the regression requirement. In addition, using the Wolff search line terms, the overall convergence of the new method has been demonstrated. At the end of the research were presented numerical results that show the effectiveness of the proposed method.