Volume 10, Issue 4, Summer and Autumn 2013, Page 13-165

On WJCP-Injective Rings

Raida D. Mahmood; Shahla M. Khalil

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163542

As a generalization of right injective rings, we introduce the nation of right injective rings, that is for any right nonsingular element  of R, there exists a positive integer  and  and any right - homomorphism , there exists  such that  for all . In this paper, we first introduce and characterize a right injective rings . Next , connection between such ring and quasi regular rings and weakly regular rings.

A Globally Convergence Spectral Conjugate Gradient Method for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Basim A. Hassan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 21-28
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163543

In this paper, a modified spectral conjugate gradient method for solving unconstrained optimization problems is studied, which has sufficient descent direction and global convergence with an inexact line searches. The Fletcher-Reeves restarting criterion was employed to the standard and new versions and gave dramatic savings in the computational time. The Numerical results show that the proposed method is effective by comparing it with the FR-method.

New Scale Dai-Yaun Conjugate Gradient Method for Unconstrained Optimization

Hamsa Th. Chilmerane

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163544

Conjugate gradient algorithm is widely used for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problems, because they do not need the storage of matrices. In this paper, we suggest a modified Dai-Yuan conjucay coefficient of conjugate gradient algorithm and propose new spectral form three-term conjugate gradient algorithm. These algorithms are used inexact line searches and Wolf line search conditions. These algorithms satisfied sufficient descent condition and the converge globally are provided under some assumptions. The numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm is very effective and the new spectral algorithm is of very robust results depending on iterations and the number of known functions.

On Maximal Chains In Partially Ordered Sets With Compatible (Left, Right)- Group Actions

Abdul Aali J. Mohammad; Eman M. Tahir

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 43-50
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163545

In this paper, we deal with compatible (left, right)-group actions on posets, i.e; (G, H)-posets. Our main purpose in this work is to study the maximal chains in  (G, H)-posets to observe that this study gives us indications on the type of some (G, H) actions on posets. Therefore, we shall study the behavior of the (G, H) actions on chains.

Rule Based Planning for Solving Hanoi Problem

safwan hasoon

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 51-59
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163546

In this research, the planning intelligence technique has been developed and applied to solve the tower  of Hanoi puzzle through the construction of the rule based included a set of facts and rules under certain conditions to describe this problem. The tower problem of Hanoi consists of different size disks and three pegs. The proposed system is to transfer the disks from the initial state to the goal state by using some rules. The rule based is used from planning to get the goal by applying different operations. The intelligence techniques used are contributed to reduce time and memory (state space) compared with traditional planning depended on human aid which spends more time and memory, since this technique solved a problem in the depended are planning the approach without human aid. The prolog language is used to implement the computer simulation program for the proposed system.

Smarandache Rings and Smarandache Elements

Parween A. Hummadi; Shadan A. Osman

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 61-69
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163547

In this paper, we study some Smarandache (S) notions in some types of   rings. Conditions are given under which   is a Smarandache ring. We study Smarandache ideals, Smarandache subrings and Smarandache weakly Boolean   rings. We discuss some types of Smarandache elements in rings. Moreover, we get some other results.

Nullity and Bounds to the Nullity of Dendrimer Graphs

Khidir R. Sharaf; Didar A. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 71-86
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163548

In this paper, a high zero-sum weighting is applied to evaluate the nullity of a dendrimer graph   for some special graphs such as cycles, paths, complete graphs, complete bipartite graphs and  star graphs.
 Finally, we introduce and prove a sharp lower and a sharp upper bound for the nullity of the coalescence graph of two graphs.

Applying Gene Expression Programming for Solving One-Dimensional Bin-Packing Problems

Najla Akram Al-Saati

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 87-106
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163549

This work aims to study and explore the use of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) in solving on-line Bin-Packing problem. The main idea is to show how GEP can automatically find acceptable heuristic rules to solve the problem efficiently and economically. One dimensional Bin-Packing problem is considered in the course of this work with the constraint of minimizing the number of bins filled with the given pieces. Experimental Data includes instances of benchmark test data taken from Falkenauer (1996) for One-dimensional Bin-Packing Problems. Results show that GEP can be used as a very powerful and flexible tool for finding interesting compact rules suited for the problem. The impact of functions is also investigated to show how they can affect and influence the success of rates when they appear in rules. High success rates are gained with smaller population size and fewer generations compared to a previous work performed using Genetic Programming.

Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Filters to Image Enhancement

Baydaa S Bhnam

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 107-119
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163550

Image enhancement  is a useful and necessary part of image processing and its analysis. The quality of an image could be corrupted by different kinds of noises, added due to the undesired conditions or during the transmission.
In this paper, a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Filters (HGAF ) is suggested for the removing of impulse noise from digital images. The new suggested algorithm HGAF uses popular (mean , median and min-max filters) and other proposed filters as fitness function for it in order to design eight proposed genetic filters. These eight proposed genetic filters are applied on several gray images corrupted by two types of noise (salt-and-pepper and gaussian noises) with different levels for comparison and to show the effectiveness of them by using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Also, proposed two methods of parents selection to compare between them and types of crossovers and mutations that are used.

The Effect of Inclination into Heat Convection Flow of Dissipative Fluid in a Channel of Porous walls

Tagread H. Shuker

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 121-131
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163551

This paper is devoted to the study of the effect of inclination into heat transfer by natural convection of fluid flowing through a channel with porous walls; the model has been created by using two-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate and the resulting differential equations governing the model solved numerically  in two phases (steady-state and unsteady-state) based on finite difference method.

Study and Developing a Network Security Prototype Based on Agent Technology

Najla Badie Ibraheem; Haleema Essa Sulaiman

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163553

         A preliminary prototype has been designed and implemented in this work to support network security that used to detect a misuse in the network environment, the events have been taken from KDD, so three types of attacks have been taken on TCP, UDP, and ICMP connections. The prototype design is based on the Agent Technology and using the JADE platform, which is a platform used as a requirement for Multi_agent systems. The used Multi_agent system is of a closed type (Closed Multi_agent System); this is due to the fact that the used agents in this system (mobile and static agents) have been defined and declared in advance, JADE Add-Ons Services have been used to provide additional features that could be used to support the proposed security prototype, like using Inter_Platform Migration Service (IPMS), and JADE Security Add-On (JADE_S).
    Through the work a test has been achieved for the ability of the prototype scalability with low network latency.

New Reverse Engineering Tool to Transform Oracle10g Code to Entity Relationship Model

Nada N. Saleem; Saad Ahmed Th.

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163554

Reverse engineering is one of the important operations performed on programming codes to get their design presented graphically. Reverse engineering is performed on various types of databases to get their particular designs represented by different models of relationships.
In this paper, we found that a tool for performing reverse engineering on Oracle10g database located  inside Oracle10g server , It has been designed in order to get its entity relationship model. Oracle10g data dictionary has been considered in performing reverse engineering. This dictionary includes all information that describes databases which is utilized for getting the important information relevant to the tables. It was necessary for presenting the entity relationship model. XML tags have been used in presenting the information of the data dictionary. These tags were utilized in creating the graphical entity relationship model.

Using the Genetic Algorithm in Developing a Method for Steganography

Nadia M. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163555

This paper has developed a method for hiding in images, as it was first encrypt the secret message chaoticlly using the chaotic encryption algorithm and secondly execute the steganography in two phases, the first divide the cover image (.BMP, .PNG) to a group of sections (Blocks) with the diagonal sequence and make hiding using the cell of the least Significant Bit (LSB) within (Bytes) of certain randomly, and then using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and working at the expense of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR)  for each section after the steganography and then get the best PSNR value of the optimal section (ie, a better distribution of the random sites). The second include a final for all sections (Blocks) depending on the results of the first stage and the best for a random distribution of sites (Bytes) according to the results of genetic algorithm.
Measuressuch as PSNR, BER, MSE and NC are used to prove the accuracy of the results and efficiency. The application implemented using Matlab 9.

Design Hybrid Algorithm for Video Encoding

Ghada Mohammad Tahir Qasim; Toqa Zuhair; Sahar Saleh; Amena Emad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 47-64
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163556

The most of the related studies and researches have focused on encrypting video files on speed and accuracy in the process of encryption. Some of them have focused on reducing the time required for the calculations. Some of them have focused on increasing the privacy of the process of encryption, regardless the processes of calculations.
Due to the fact that all the studies and researches that have been found were focused on the use of some  of the ways of encrypting the texts like data encryption standard (DES) in encrypting video files ,and the fact that all the weakness points were related to the calculations, so in this research, many of these methods were connected with modification required to reduce the calculations and to obtain the speed of encrypting video files and give them a high privacy.
The research has been completed in five stages, four of which are used to provide four levels of protection with levels of internal protection to ensure high privacy. The fifth stage is to conduct the process of analyzing the code of the files that has been encrypted in the previous stages as show below:
The first stage :using  the style of scrambling by using  a developed style by using a proposed function ,but not by using the style of texts, to ensure speed of performing this method.
The second stage: Using the style of changing some color values to ensure high privacy.
The third stage; Using the style of scrambling (column scrambling) to ensure a stage of higher privacy.
The fourth stage: Using the scrambling method of the color values that bear higher frequency.
The fifth stage :Analyzing the video files resulting from the process of encryption.
As well as achieving an external protection for the program via checking the user ID and the used keys.
It should be pointed out that the results of this  research has been achieved by using MATLAB 7 and MATLAB10 languages.

Hiding digital image watermarking in a sound signal using Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition

Alyaa Moufaq Abdul Majeed Haleem; AlAA Zakaria

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 65-83
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163557

The outgrowing of multimedia applications in communications network brought about an increasing need to provide qualified methods to protect these media and secure communication. These methods include encryption and information hiding.
In this research, a new method has been improved to hide watermarking image in voice signal then send it through the network with no effect on the cover sound through the hiding process. This method is performed by applying two ways. The first one is the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) while the second one is singular value decomposition (SVD) by using wavelet transform, we get detail values which are arranged in a specific way and then entered to the singular value decomposition algorithm.  Finally we get eign values, which embedding the data of the watermark image inside these values. So, we get the watermark signal with no effects. Also, the recovered image efficiency measurement is performed by using the correlation coefficient between the original and the recovered watermark image and also we apply the measurement of the difference between the original voice signal (cover) and the watermarked voiced signal by using signal to noise ratio (SNR). Matlab is the approval as a programming language in this paper.

Hybrid System: Parallel Neural -Genetic Algorithm Algorithm for Compacting Fractal Images Using Multiple Computers

Shahla A. Abdel-Qader; Suzan K. Ibrahim; Omia Gh. Abdel-Jabbar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 85-102
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163558

Recently, effective technologies in Fractal Image Coding (FIC) were used to reduce the complexity of search for the matching between the Range blocks and the  Domain blocks which reduces the time needed for calculation. The aim of this research is to propose a Hybird Parallel Neural -Genetic Algorithm (HPNGA) using  the technique  of  (Manager/Worker) in  multiple computers in order to obtain the fastest   and best compression through extracting the features of the  gray and colored images to attenuate the problem of dimensions in them .The NN enabled to train separate images from the test images to reduce the calculation time. The NN able to adapt itself with the training data to reduce the complexity and having more data and is merged with the parallel GA to reach optimum values of weights with their biases. The optimum weights obtained will classify the correct search domains with the least deviation ,which, in turn ,helps decompress the images using the fractal method with the minimum time and with high resolution through multiple computers. The results showed that the proposed hybrid system  is  faster  than the  standard algorithm ,the NN and GA in decompressing the FIC and they  are flexible and effective to reach the optimum solution with high speed and resolution .The search method used for compression and de-compression has a vital role in improving the ratio  and the quality of image compression which  reached 15s .The  ratio of compression reached to  90.68% and the image improvement after decompression   reached  to 34.71db  when  compared to other  methods of  (FIC), which didn't exceed 90.41% and image quality of 32.41db and the execution speed  was only  21s.

Hybridization of the Artificial Immune Network Using the Backpropagation Neural Network

Omar Saber Qasim; Israa Rustum Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 103-114
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163559

In this research building style simulation developed is applied in the field of pattern recognition medical patients osteoporosis through a process of integrating and hybridization between artificial immune network and back propagation neural network, where the focus was on the qualities positive and overcome the negative qualities possessed by each of these two technologies by building technology improved, have proven technical hybrid it with better results and high efficiency in the classification of cases patients osteoporosis compared with both artificial immune network (AIN) and back propagation neural network (BP).

Online Face Detection and Recognition in a Video Stream

Maha A. Hasso Al-Ghurery; Manar A. Zidan Al-Abaji

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 115-134
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163560

Faces detection and recognition process received considerable attention during the past decade, it is still considered one of the most important studies in the field of Image Processing, Pattern Recognition, and Computer Vision, where it drew the attention of many researchers from both the academic and industrial environments because of the broad scope of its practical applications. Face recognition system is considered as one of the biometric information processing systems that is easy to apply, the necessity of  identifying the identity in the areas of security and surveillance systems made face recognition system one of the most important biometric techniques used in the identification of the individual.
In this work a system is designed for Online Face Detection and Recognition depending on multiple algorithms that are: AdaBoost algorithm for the face detection and the two algorithms Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) to extract features and use back propagation neural network in recognition.
This system has been applied on a group of people using different numbers of features extracted from the face. Good recognition ratios have been obtained reached (87.5%)  relying on the key frame in the calculation of the of recognition ratio and (94%) relying on the outcome of the 25 video frames in the calculation of the of recognition ratio.
The System was implemented using graphical interfaces of Visual Studio C# 2010 Language.

Stability Analysis of Anonlinear Autoregressive Model of First Order

Abdulghafoor Gasim Salim; Abeer Abdulkhaliq Ahmed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 135-145
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163561

         In this paper, we study the moment of a non linear – autoregressive polynomial model of first order, also we analysis the stability of this model and find the singular point as well as the limit cycle by using the linear approximation technique.

Using Exponential Finite Difference Method for Solve Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation with Numerical Stability Analysis

Abdulghafor M. Al-Rozbayani; Shrooq M. Azzo

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 147-165
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163562

In this paper we solved the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation numerically by finite-difference methods, using two different schemes which are the Fully Implicit scheme and Exponential finite difference scheme, because of the existence of the fourth derivative in the equation we suggested a treatment for the numerical solution of the two previous scheme by parting the mesh grid into five regions, the first region represents the first boundary condition, the second at the grid point x1, while the third represents the grid points x2,x3,…xn-2, the fourth represents the grid point xn-1and the fifth is the second boundary condition. We also, studied the numerical stability by Fourier (Von-Neumann) method for the two scheme which used in the solution on all mesh points to ensure the stability of the point which had been treated in the suggested style, we using two interval with two initial condition and the numerical results obtained by using these schemes are compare with Exact Solution of Equation Excellent approximate is found between the Exact Solution and numerical Solutions of these methods.