Volume 10, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2013, Page 13-156

On Simple Singular N-Flat Modules

Raida D. Mahmood; Dina A. Hadid

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163522

Let I be a right ideal of a ring R , then R/I is right N-flat module if and only if for each , there exists  and a positive integer n such that  and  .In this paper, we first introduce and characterize rings whose every simple singular right R-module is N - flat. Next, we investigate the strong regularity of rings whose every  simple singular right R - module is N-flat. It is proved that :
R is strongly regular ring if and only if R is a wjc , MERT and  2 - primal ring whose simple singular right R- module is N - flat.
Let R be  a wjc ring satisfying condition (*). If every simple singular right R-module is  N-flat .Then, the Center of R is a regular ring.

Two Modified QN-Algorithms for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Basim A. Hassan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 21-28
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163523

This paper presents two modified Quasi-Newton algorithms which are designed for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. These algorithms are based on  different techniques namely: Quasi-Newton conditions on quadratic and non-quadratic objective functions. Experimental results indicate that the new proposed algorithms are more efficient than the Yuan and Biggs- algorithms.

New Three –Term CG-Method for Unconstrained Optimization

Ban A. Mitras; Nada F. Hassan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163524

In this paper, we proposed  a new three-term  nonlinear Conjugate Gradient  (CG) method for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The new three-term method generates decent direction with an inexact line search under Wolfe conditions and the descent property of the new method is proved. Numerical results on some well-known  test function with various dimensions showed that the new method is an efficient .

Arabic Handwritten Signature Identification

Alaa Y. Taqa; Hanaa F. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 37-54
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163525

This paper proposes a new intelligent off-line Arabic handwritten signature identification and verification system based on texture analysis. The system uses the texture as feature and back propagation neural network as classifier. The signature image is preprocessed by several operations (Noise removal, Conversion of the signature image to binary image, Finding outer rectangle, Thinning and Size normalization) then the fractal number and co-occurrence matrix are computed to estimate texture features. In this work, two off-line Arabic handwritten signature identification systems are constructed. The first one uses the nearest Euclidean distance, while the other uses back propagation neural network. The paper analyzes and compares the results obtained from the two proposed systems to show the robustness level of the proposed intelligence system. Furthermore, the proposed system was tested by using Genuine signatures and has achieved a CCR (Correct Classification Rate) of 100% in best cases, while it was tested by using Forged signatures it has achieved a CRR approximated to 96.3% in best cases.  The experimental results showed that the proposed system is efficient and competent with other state-of-the-art texture-based off-line signature identification systems.

Analysis of Requirements Phase as a Step for Software Engineering Automation

Abdul Sattar M. Khidhir; Noor L. Shihab

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 63-75
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163527

Requirements engineering is the first phase of the software engineering process. This phase is the basis of other phases, so it is a very critical phase. Incomplete, ambiguous and misunderstanding requirements lead to fail in the product. For this reason, attention must be increased in requirements engineering  to obtain accurate, complete and unambiguous requirements to satisfy users' needs in their products.
In this paper, an attempt to analyze the requirement phase and produce analysis model is presented by using EA (Enterprise Architect) tool to offer a smart support for requirements engineering processes and introducing them as basis in requirements development in software engineering automation.

Hosoya Polynomials of Generalized Vertex Identified and Edge Introducing Graphs

Ahmed M. Ali; Noor M. Dahash

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 77-88
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163528

The vertex identified and edge introducing graphs of two disjoint connected graphs are extended to n, , disjoint connected graphs. Hosoya polynomials and Wiener indices of such composite graphs are obtained by applying Gutman's Theorem and using mathematical induction on n.

Study of Dynamical Properties and Effective of a State u for Hyperchaotic Pan Systems

Saad Fawzi AL-Azzawi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163529

In this paper, we propose a new four-dimensional continuous autonomous hyperchaotic system which is built by adding a nonlinear controller to a three- dimensional chaotic Pan system. The new system is analyzed both theoretically and numerically by studying dynamical behaviors for this system, including equilibrium points, Lyapunov exponents, stability and bifurcation, also we study the stability, bifurcation andsymmetry for another  four dimensional system which is generated by Pan in (2011) from the original system, we compared between two systems and found the difference between them. Finally, we show the effective  of state u on the  two systems. 

Numerical Solution for Non-linear Boussinesq System Using the Haar Wavelet Method

Ekhlass S. Al-Rawi; Ahmed F. Qasim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 101-115
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163530

In this paper, an operational matrix of integrations based on the Haar wavelet method is applied for finding the numerical solution of non-linear third-order boussinesq system and the numerical results were compared with the exact solution. The accuracy of the obtained solutions is quite high even if the number of calculation points is small, by increasing the number of collocation points the error of the solution rapidly decreases as shown by solving an example. We have been reduced the boundary conditions in the solution by using the finite differences method with respect to time. Also we have reduced the order of boundary conditions used in the numerical solution by using the boundary condition at x=L instead of the derivatives of order two with respect to space.

Fourier Stability Analysis of Two Finite Element Schemes for Reaction-Diffusion System with Fast Reversible Reaction

Ann Jalal; Mohammed O. Al-Amr

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 117-128
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163531

In this paper, the stability analysis is performed on two Galerkin finite element schemes for solving reaction-diffusion system with fast reversible reaction.  Fourier (Von Neumann) method is implemented to propose time-step criteria for the consistent and the lumped schemes with four popular choices for . We have found that the two schemes are unconditionally stable when , while the consistent scheme is stable under the conditions  and  when . Also, the lumped scheme is stable under the conditions  and  when .

Steganography based on Vector Quantization Technique

Ansam Osamah; Ahmed S. Nori

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163532

The present research was aimed to implement a new Steganographic algorithm for Images in Vector Quantization (VQ) compressed domain, since the compressed image considers a secure cover for data to be embedded to avoid attention of unauthorized persons. Also, it saves the cost and time of transmission and storage. The new algorithm aimed to increase the embedding capacity with maintaining the image quality as well as reducing the time of the extraction process. The algorithm was implemented using Matlab 2009a. It embedded two bits in each index depending on mod 4, and secret key shared between sender and receiver. The algorithm used grayscale and RGB images (BMP and PNG) of different resolutions after compression in order to be used as a cover of secret data which were either as text or image. In the research, the new algorithm provided an acceptable image quality despite of the high embedding capacity that occupy the cover image completely, Also, the codebook was not needed for data extraction which led to reducing the extraction time significantly.

On Generalized m-flat Modules

Zubayda M. Ibraheem; Maha F. Khalaf

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163533

Let I be a right (left) ideal of a ring R. Then R/I is a right (left) generalized m – flat modules (GmF – module) if and only if for each , there exist  and a fixed positive integer m such that . We study characterization and properties this class of flat modules, and we give the relation between this class and generalized m- flat modules and m – regular rings, reduced rings, reversible rings and uniform rings.

Application of Some Traditional Denoiseing Algorithms to Zoom-Out the Color Images

Hanan Hamid Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163534

In this paper many algorithmswereapplied to" zoom –out" the images, like the traditional algorithm  (Linear Averaging) algorithm, then this algorithm was developed to a proposed  algorithm (Block Averaging) to be the new one in this paper. another algorithm is obtained from another application which is involved as an enhancement smoothing algorithms and will be used as a (zooming-out) scheme,  this algorithm is the (Median) algorithm. The obtained results of these algorithms were compared together to sign the better one. The MATLAB language is used to apply the algorithms.                   .                                           

Digital Image Compression using Karhunen-Loève Transform

Ghada Thanoon Younes

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163535

In this research present the digital image compression using by  Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT), by convert a color digital  image to a gray square digital image, then select the no. of eigen values and eigen vectors that can reconstruct the image,  that be very near to the original image.
And then calculate compression ratio and a high result reach it, after applied fidelity criteria on image produce from compression represented by (PSNR, MSE, correlation coefficient and compression ratio), and using a matlab language programming for execute this research.

Chaotic Image Steganography using DCT and DWT

Nadia M. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 61-73
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163536

The researchers was interest in the issue of security from long time ago  even  arrived to the current age (the digital age), and because of the importance of this topic and the challenges in it, so this work which included  study and application of new algorithm is proposed to achieve a high level of  security by encrypting the secret message  (image) using the Logistic  Chaotic  function  after the implementation of  Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In the next  phase, it has been implemented the  Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)  on the cover (image) and then hide the secret message within encrypted data in which  the adoption of the principle of random Blocks which is determined  by  chaotic series.
Deliberately proposed algorithm to provide more of an advantage in it's work, provide ingreliability through data encryption,  message  security, and provided a very high degree of security  through the adoption of the principle of random selected passages  Chaotic, increasing the efficiency of the work of the algorithm and the degree of security.
After the application it must be the use of performance measurements,  so the following was used (NC, BER, PSNR, MSE). The language was  Matlab9.

Encrypt and Hide Data in True Color Image Classes

Maha A. Hasso; Shahad A. Hasso; Ban Ghanem Maayouf

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 75-89
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163537

In a world that has evolved in which the information and means of transmission within the network of the whole world not to be a convenient way to keep that information to have some privacy or confidentiality had to be hide from some people who may resort to playing with them or use them brings harm to himself and to others and make them exclusive to the needed, and that was the motivation for the selection of research topic, it is aimed primarily to find a new technique to protect data.
In this research the application of triple data encryption standard  (3DES)  to encrypt a given text using multiple keys then hide the encrypted text in a true color  image, after selecting their own identity by k-means algorithm for classification and a number of varieties.
Data has been hidden as bytes by putting it in the image (depending on the classification) and results showed high accuracy in the hiding did not appear to the human eye is no evidence on the existence of hidden data in the image in each color of the components of the (24 bit), any image that the unit used for the image store 3 bytes of the encrypted text so it is possible using the proposed algorithm to hide the size of any text, without the appearance of any effect on the resulting image.
The results showed that the size of the cover image after hiding the encrypted text is the same as it is before the process of hiding, and also found the application to increase or decrease the number of items does not represent a major factor in hiding, but whenever the size of the image is greater (Dimensions), the greater the proportion of hiding. Visual C # language have been used to implement the proposed method.

Classification of Software Engineering Documents Based on Artificial Immune Systems

Nada N. Saleem; Rasha Gh. Saeed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 91-112
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163538

Care about automated documents classification has increased since the appearance of the digital documents and the wide diffusion of Internet. In the 1990's, the computer performance has greatly improved and has led to the methods of machine learning to establish automated classifiers. These methods have achieved good speed and classification's accuracy and researchers still investigate in this field to accomplish more accuracy and less time. Artificial immunologic systems have shown high performance in such as data clustering and anomaly detection which can be ascribed to the nature of the immunologic system in protecting the body.
Some of the present methods and ways used in the training process of the document classification are time consuming and others have less accuracy rate concerned the classification of the related document as software engineering document classes For these reasons, this research deals with the study of Natural Immune System and using the dynamic process of the Innate Immune System work based on danger theory and Dendritic Cell (DC) technique  in building Dendritic Cell Model (DCM) to classify Software Engineering documents as they comprise information related to developing the software systems, that makes it easy for the software engineer who works in maintenance.
DCM has high classification's speed and accuracy besides easy and flexible use by designing interfaces that makes it easy for the user to deal with the system. In order to improve the quality and the efficiency of DCM method, it was compared to one of the best and well-known methods of classification referred to as, Naive Bayes(NB). After conducting several experiments on a various group of software engineering documents, evaluations results have shown that the accuracy of the innate immunologic method (DCM) has reached (DCM) (95%), whereas Naïve classification method has reached (90 %) with training and classification speed that doesn’t exceed one minutes. This shows the feasibility of using the algorithms of AIS systems in the field of information recovery and documents classification. This system was built and programmed in Java language and was implemented under an operating system environment Microsoft Windows7.

Neural Network Using for Extracting Hidden Information in Images

safwan hasoon; Farhad M. Khalifa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 113-130
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163539

Steganography technique widely spread and varied. With the widening in using steganography, its misuse alarmists arisen. Thus steganalysis comes into sight to deter unwanted secret communications.
In this paper a new scheme proposed for extracting hidden information, this scheme relies on the capability of artificial neural networks for prediction to estimate the original values of the pixels which values of some of them were changed by the affection of data embedding process, and then the present pixel values will be compared with estimated values to identify the embedded data. Multilayer Perceptron MLP neural network used in this scheme to estimate the pixel's original value using its neighbor pixels. The proposed schemes programmed using Matlab v. The proposed schemes has been trained and tested using a data base prepared for this purpose. Then its performance compared with another work in the same field applied in similar conditions. The results showed that the proposed scheme has the ability to achieving the desired with a good rate of success.

Evaluation of Some Properties of Distributed Databases using Oracle

Alaa Faisal Saeed Al-Mukhtar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 131-142
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163540

In this study, query processing efficiency of the distributed database in the relational database Oracle9i was examined and compared. Our test data is based on a (Customer Type Definition), which is designed to represent customer information of bank. We generated 8 different sizes of test customers: 300, 600, 900, 2100,4500, 45000, 1360 Records.
DML language (SQL) as tools for any comparison can be achieved by the statistical performance parameter (Elapsed time, CPU time, Logical read , Physical read, Logical write, Physical write, Elapsed time, UGA ) .statistical analysis using ANOVA TABLE is used to judge between comparisons.
 All the queries were run on two computers for different sizes of vertical and horizontal fragments. Changes in performance metrics for each query were written in table after experiments. Finally, we presented the results, and discussed where enhancements are required.
Statistical analysis using ANOVA TABLE were used to distinguish  between this comparison,  it had been  found that SELECT, UPDATE and DELETE have the most influence on the performance parameter respectively.

Stability Study of the Orbits of Satellites around the Earth

Thair Y. Thanoon; Marwa Khaled fathy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 143-156
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163541

In this research, we have studied of the motion of satellite orbits and rotation around the earth and that are subject to the laws of kepler and relationships associated with this motion, such as changing angular and circular time league and the gravitational constant, etc. In the case of circular orbits of Earth satellites. As compounds are calculated position vector  and vector velocity compounds  any time  satellite orbiting the earth geocentric spherical coordinates  . It was a study tracks and various forms taken by this motion in both cases using the language (Matlab). Were also study the stability of the motion of satellites using chetayev method assisted integrals were finding the conditions stabiliting motion.