ISSN: 1815-4816

Volume 9, Issue 1

Volume 9, Issue 1, Spring 2012, Page 13-199


Explicit- Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods to Solve the System of Nonlinear PPDEs in Two Dimensions

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Saad Manaa; Abdulghafor M. Al-Rozbayani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163667

In this paper, we will find the numerical solution of Gray-Scott model in two dimensions space, this method is a system of non-linear parabolic partial differential equations. Then transforming the original model (system of non-linear PPDEs), by using the method of lines to a system of ODEs. Therefore we used Runge-Kutta methods (Explicit RK method and Implicit RK method) to find the numerical solutions of the new systems, and we compared between these methods, we saw that the numerical results of IRK methods is more accurate than the numerical results of ERK method.
 

Controlling and Protecting Windows Applications by Analyzing and Manipulating PE File Format

Rawaa P. Qasha; Zaid A. Monther

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163668

PE (Portable Executable) is the native file format of Windows32. Analyzing and manipulating the PE file gives valuable insights into the structure and work of Windows.
This research includes analysis the components of Windows executable files as a structure and defined values, to provide the capability of protection and controlling Windows programs by applying specified modifications that can be undid on PE specific value to stop the program from being executed by unwanted user. Also it includes analyzing the structure of PE file and comparing a specified part from PE with a same part from common viruses file, this process offers a good way to detect malicious programs and viruses in the computer by saving viruses signatures in a specified file and scanning all PE files. The other part of the research rebuild the Import Address Table of any PE files that may make a call to one of three important and essential registry API functions in order to control the using of these functions in the system using one of the API hooking techniques to control Undesirable programs.
The objective of the research is to control the executable files of the Windows system in order to provide protection for these files and the system as a whole.
Research program was developed using Visual C + + 9.0.
 

A New Method for Iris Segmentation and Feature Extraction in Spatial Domain

Dujan B. Taha; Shamil Q. Ibraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163669

In this paper, a new proposed method is developed, this method contains two algorithms, one for human iris recognition, the other is for extracting the features of the recognized iris.
Many studies tried to extract the iris from images, most of those studies succeeded but after using very complex processing and filtering operations in addition to transforming the image to other domains (such as frequency domain) to achieve the required operations. The proposed method deduct those complexities operations to a minimum and requires only wavelet transform in a small part of the second algorithm, all other operations will be applied directly to the spatial domain. Experimental results shows the efficiency of the method as its being applied to the images of the Chinese Academy of Sciences – Institute of Automation “CASIA” iris database which contains a lot of deformations. Finally, Matlab R2010a (Ver. 7.10.0) was used to implement the algorithms presented in this paper because it facilitates handling images, arrays, and filters.
 

Steganalysis Using KL Transform and Radial Basis Neural Network

Safwan Hasoon; Farhad M. Khalifa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 47-58
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163670

The essential problem in the security field is how to detect information hiding. This paper proposes a new steganalysis scheme based on artificial neural network as a classifier to detect information hiding in colored and grayscale images. The statistical features extracted from Karhunen-Loève (KL) transform coefficients obtained from co-occurrence matrix of image. Then radial basis neural network (RBNN) trained using these features to discriminate  whether the image contains hidden information or not. This system can be used to prevent the suspicious secret communication.
 

Image Coding Using EZT Based on Contourlet Transformation

Khalil I. Alsaif; Teba M. Ghaze

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 59-72
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163671

Due to the fact that most of the application on EZT algorithm were applied on wavelet transformation. In the last ten years, the contourlet transformation shows that its efficiency is higher than the wavelet transformation due to its ability to deal with multidirections instead of the vertical and horizontal directions which are covered by the wavelet transformation.
In this paper, the contourlet coefficient is adopted as inputs to the EZT (which normally are a wavelet coefficient ). Arranging the contourlet coefficient to be studied as input to EZT, the result of adopting modified contourlet coefficient was studied on two parameters (the file size and threshold value ) and tested by evaluating two factors (correlation and MSE).
Comparing the result which we get it with the wavelet technique shows that the contourlet gives a result closer, to the original one depending on the correlation factor plus the PSNR factor. So, the proposed technique can be achieved.  
 

Development a Special Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Minimization Problems

Basim A. Hassan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163672

This paper develops a special conjugate gradient algorithm for solving  unconstrained minimized problems. This development can be regarded as some kind of convex combination of the MPR and MLS methods.  Experimental results indicate that the new algorithm is more efficient than the Polak and Ribiere - algorithm.
 

Brain Tumor Detection Using Snake Algorithm and Fuzzy C-Mean

Ramadan M. Ramo

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 85-100
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163673

In this research, two methods have been suggested for the detection of the brain tumor . (which is defined as the abnormal growth of cells), The first method is used the snake algorithm and the second Fuzzy C-mean . Initial  image hase been processed that converts the image to gray then a Median filtering method is used to remove noise and other false  features while maintaining the quality of public image. The methods are applied on a number of brain image with different angles. The results have to been presented of both methods and compared. The result show that snake method with a high speed in detecting the tumor, the matlab language has been used for the suggestions methods.
 

De-speckling 2D-Discrete Wavelet Transform with Hard Threshold Stage

Dhafer F. Hasan; Maha A. Abdul-Jabar; Zahraa T. Abed Al-Mokhtar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 101-112
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163674

In this work, a new method is implemented for removing noise from gray scale image that depends on two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform and Threshold stage (hard threshold). This paper represents the algorithm to remove the speckle noise by using logarithm operation. This operation changes the multiplicative noise to additive noise. So that, the removing operation becomes easier. The Matlab program is used to build the Algorithm and measure the PSNR and other measurement criteria as (NMV, NV, NSD, ENL and PSNR) to study the effect of removing noise from corrupted image. The PSNR  reaches to 24dB which is very satisfactory result in the reconstructed image,  while the maximum value of ENL is 2.23 * 106,  and the minimum value of NMV, NV, NSD which is equal to 6.79, 2.67*10-5, 46* 10-4 respectively gives a smoother and cleaner image. The universal Threshold is applied in high frequency coefficient (i.e. the LH, HL, and HH-sub band of image) to remove the speckle noise and the low frequency coefficient (LL-sub band of image) is still without any change.
 

Development AES Algorithm to Encryption Images and Sounds Files

Mohammed C.Y. Al-Zubaidy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 113-127
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163675

In this research, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm was developed, the AES is used for encryption and decryption the images and sounds files by expanding the block size of data to reach the maximum size of 512 bit instead 128 bit/cycle, by using the Thread API techniques, which is a break off CPU working for increasing times taken the inline encrypt or decrypt operations. The data entranced from the file by size 512 bits per cycle, is converted to one dimension matrix by block size which is 2048 bit. The method considered 4-lines using 4 AES, which in every line, one AES is working in a distinct system.
Transmission and reception of encoded files could be performed by using Email programs provided that the sent file does not include the encoding key for the purpose of protecting encoded files against unauthorized access.
In addition to the use of the histogram in this research by comparing the block size of images or sounds files through the encrypting or decrypting system by scanning bit to bit operations. The implement algorithm with a sample of histogram was used to ensure that the data is not changed throughout this study.
 

A Study on the Conditions of Oscillation of Solutions of Second Order Impulsive Delay Differential Equations

Muayyad M. Khalil

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163676

Oscillation conditions of second order impulsive delay differential equations with impulses are investigated, some sufficient conditions for all solutions to be oscillatory are obtained. Also, two examples are given to illustrate the applicability of the results obtained.
 

The Detour Polynomials of Ladder Graphs

Ali Aziz Ali; Gashaw A. Muhammed-Saleh

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 139-146
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163677

The detour distance  between two distinct vertices  and  of a connected graph  is the length of a longest  path in. The detour index of  is defined by, and the detour polynomial of  is . The detour indices and detour polynomials of some ladder graphs are obtained in this paper.
 

On Simple GP – Injective Modules

Mohammed Th. Youns; Najlaa T. Jassim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 147-154
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163678

In this  paper, we study rings whose simple right R-module are GP-injective. We prove that ring whose simple right R-module is GP-injective it will be right -weakly regular ring. Also, proved that if R is N duo ring or R is NCI ring whose simple right R-module is GP-injective is S-weakly regular ring.
 

New Study of Stability for New Lorenz-like System

Ahmmed M. Juma'a; Ala'a A. Hammodat

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 155-161
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163679

In this paper, we  studied differential system like of three dimensional Lorenz system. Nonlinear characteristic and basic dynamic properties of three dimensional autonomous system are studied by means of nonlinear dynamics theory, including the stability and we found that the value  is effected by the form of the roots.
 

Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for Certain Nonlinear Mixed Type Integral and Integro-Differential Equations

Akram H. Mahmood; Lamyaa H . Sadoon

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 163-173
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163680

The aim of this paper is to study the existence, uniqueness and other properties of solutions of certain Volterra-Fredholm integral and integro differential equations. The tools employed in the analysis are based on the applications of the Banach fixed point theorem coupled with Bielecki type norm and certain integral inequalities with explicit estimates.
 

On Generalized Simple Singular AP-Injective Rings

Raida D. Mahmood; Husam Q. Mohammad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 175-180
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163681

A ring R is said to be generalized right simple singular AP-injective, if for any maximal essential right ideal M of R and for any bÎM, bR/bM is AP-injective. We shall study the characterization and properties of  this class of rings. Some interesting results on these rings are obtained. In particular, conditions under  which generalized simple singular AP-injective  rings are weakly regular rings, and Von Neumann regular rings.
 

Numerical solution and stability analysis of the Sine-Gordon system in two dimensions

Saad A. Manna; Haneen T. Jassim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163684

This paper deals with the numerical solution for Sine-Gordon system in two dimensions using two finite difference methods the (ADE) and (ADI) methods .A comparison between the two methods has been done and we have obtained that the (ADE) method is the easer while the (ADI) method is more accurate than the (ADE) method. We also studied the stability analysis for each method by using Fourier (Von Neumann) method and we have obtained that the (ADI) method is unconditionally stable while the (ADE) method is stable under the condition  and    where  is the ratio of the waves speed  u , w and . 
 
 

The Basis Number of Quadruple Join of Graphs

Ghassan T. Marougi; Raghad A. Mustafa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163685

The basis number, b(G) ,of a graph G is defined to be the smallest positive integer k such that G has a k-fold basis for its cycle space. We investigate an upper bound for .It is proved that, if and  are connected vertex-disjoint graphs and each has a spanning tree of vertex degree not more than 4, then  
The basis number of quadruple join of paths, are studied. It is proved that
 
 

Development Of Traditional Algorithms and Make a Hybrid Algorithm to Denoising The Color Images

Hanan Hamid Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 35-47
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163686

The development in life has made the need very important for using images in many scientific fields like space, engineering and medicine. Due to the fact that such images are affected by various types of noises which produced from different sources which required some kind of filtering in order to produce a better images. The new algorithm applied in this research is obtained from merging two available methods using Matlab (2008). The first method adopts the mean filter while the second one uses the conservative smoothing filter .the application done on (jpg, gif) images for (salt & pepper) noises in different values and also (salt & pepper, Gaussian) noises which applied at the same time on the image. The result of each method is compared with the new result outcome from the application of the new hybrid algorithm.  
 

Automatic Test Cases Generation Using an Advanced GEP Method

Najla Akram Al-Saati; Roua Basil

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 49-65
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163687

This research aims to provide a practical work on the principle of the Extreme Programming (XP) which is a type of the Agile Software Development Methods which is used in the generation of test-cases using the design information.  The resources utilized in the design information presented here are the design diagrams generated using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), as they are considered to be the most commonly used modeling language in these days, and also the newest. These UML diagrams are used to automatically develop a set of high quality test cases which are then used to test the system’s code after being written.
The main idea of this work is based on reducing the effort of the testing stage which costs more than 50% of the resources allocated for the whole development process; this cost may include the financial cost, the cost of the resources allocated for the project, and the timeline of the project.
In this work, enhancements have been made to the concept of Gene Expression Programming to ensure the generation of high quality the test cases that are generated automatically, and a solution has been presented for the parallel paths and the loop paths problems that are found in the design.
 

Authentication of data hiding using co-occurrence matrix

Melad jader saeed; Ghada thanoon

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163688

This research is considered one of the steps aiming to deal with one of the most important challenges facing communicators via Internet, as a means for ensuring information security and verifying the authenticity and credibility of the received message. The research designs and implements proposed system for verifying the authenticity of retrieved information which are ciphered and hidden inside colored images. This is done through utilizing the capabilities and features that the process of image texture analysis offers, using the co-occurrence matrix. The message authenticity is verified by comparing the co-occurrence matrices before sending and after receiving in order to assure non infiltration.
            Results of applying this system on image files with different extensions, and on text messages with different sizes too, have shown supremacy in fighting spam.
 

A Proposed Methodology for Software Engineering of Agent Systems

Asmaa Yaseen Hammo; Maher Talal Alasaady

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 93-115
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163690

In recent years, computer systems that make use of software agents are increased, due to the increased size and complexity of these systems, as well as, because the benefits provided by agents to facilitating the developing process and requirements representation for these systems. Traditional software engineering methodologies are not enough to be used in the development of such systems, because the special characteristics for software agent, therefore there are many proposed Agent Based Software Engineering (ABSE) methodologies to support software engineers in the agents based systems development, However, some of  them were designed without adhering to all main stages of software development life cycle, as well as they are lacking for representation of most agents features, additionally, most of them are not represents the implementation phase or represented it but in unclear and unpractical manner.
To address these issues, this research is investigated the existing methodologies and diagnose its strengths and weaknesses, then construct a proposed ABSE methodology depending on combining of strengths for existing methodologies, and delete or modify its weaknesses. This methodology is covered all main stages of software development life cycle, and dealing with problems in the existing methodologies. The requirements phase and part of the design phase were rely on Tropos methodology, whereas the implementation phase and part of the analysis and design phases were rely on MASD methodology, these stages has been modified by deleting its weaknesses and add some other novel techniques.
To improve the new proposed methodology, a running agent based e-commerce system has been developed depending on stages of this methodology, and implement it with Java programming language and XML using the Jadex platform
 

Compression Image by Using Iterated Function Systems

Basil Y. Al-khayat; Mahasin Thabit Younis

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 117-133
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163691

This research was in the compression digital images using the iterative function and applied to grayscale images, color images and then re-pressed image decoding. Matlab language is used for programming the system, the proposed algorithms have been applied to a number of images and the results show the efficient and accurate of the proposed algorithms. The method of compressing using iterative function systems methods are from loss compressing methods the advantage of these method by high compressing rate and this was confirmed by the results obtained have been getting a good percentage of the compressing and the quality is good and clear.
 

Using The Value of GPS To Determined The Position Of The Mobile User in Mosul University

Ghaydaa A.A. Al-Talib; Hiba Muneer Yahya

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 135-146
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163692

The Mobile is a circuit that  receives and sends signals through earth stations and satellites so the objective of this research is to build a system that retrieves information about  the location of the  mobile user .
The proposed system gets information of the location of the mobile user within Mosul university depending on the values of longitude and Latitude that have  been received from GPS .
The system displays on the mobile screen the values of longitude and latitude of the current location, as well as a list of names for the nearest buildings that surrounding the user location .
The system works on a mobile model (Nokia) from the third generation and beyond. This mobile has an integrated GPS receiver. The job of this receiver is to receive the incoming signals from the satellites, and they are  working out of the buildings (out door). We used the Java 2 Micro Edition   (J2ME) Language to write the program for this application, since it is the language that is mostly used to write the mobile applications.
 

A Full List of Projectively Distinct K-Arcs in Finite Projetive Space Pg(2,8)

Ali Ahmed A. Abdulla; Abdulkhalik L. Yasin

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 147-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163693

A k-arc in a plane PG(2,q)  is a set of k point such that every line in the plane intersect it in at most two points and there is a line intersect it in exactly two points. A k-arc is complete if there is no k+1-arc containing it. This thesis is concerned with studies a k-arcs, k=4,5,….,10 and classification of projectively distinct k-arcs and distinct arcs under collineation. We prove by using  computer program that the only complete k-arcs is for, k= 6,10. This work take (150) hours computer time .   
 

Employing Information technology in Designing a Network Based Human Resources Information System

Raed Abdul Qadir Hamid; Inaam Abdul Jabbar Sultan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 159-174
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163694

The research deals with the importance of ICT in the design of HRIS based on the network. Its importance lies in the practical side, through the adoption of the Technical Institute / Nineveh (application environment) on the HRIS based on the network as this system will reduce the effort and time required for data entry, and which also is maintained and confidentiality of information as well as access to information necessary for all individuals working in various units of the relationship, away from the movement between these units of information sources, participation is the objective basis of the objectives of the network. It has been used database management program MS Access in the development of the proposed system, as characterized by this program in its ability to work through the network with the same efficiency in which it operates on a personal computer, and that this program allows the possibility of sharing data, either by placing the entire database on the server, or put to share their data on the server. We has been taking the second option, where the database was divided and put tables on the server and then to copy all the objects on the workstations to reduce the pressure on the network, data is transmitted on the network and the rest of the organisms are present on all network computers.
 

Hybrid hiding in multimedia files

Farah Tareq Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 175-185
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163695

The principle of hybrid information hiding represented by process of information hiding  message (multimedia files) embedded inside another message which is depended on hiding a certain media in another media using different domains (special domain, frequency domain) to provide protection and security for transformed data,  this paper  suggest an algorithm by using two different files first one compressed binary image, the compression method is run-length and hided this file inside the hostage media by use frequency domain which is represented by Discrete cosine transform (DCT), the second is text ciphered by Caesar method which is depended one secret key by using spatial domain.
The data has been retrieved with no error for both text and binary image after deciphering and decompress process completed; the value of normalization correlation factor for both of them is equal to one.
 

Design Genetic Algorithm To Find The Optimal Critical Path Network Project (GAOCPN)

Samaa Tlayea Azeez; Niam Al-Thanoon; Lamyaa Jasim Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 187-210
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163696

The present study deals with using up-to-date intelligent techniques. We try to utilize the genetic algorithm efficiently and integrate it with the problem of study by designing and applying a genetic algorithm to find the optimal critical path of networks GAOCPN achieving many results, e.g., real time. Accuracy in representing the steps of project execution as a net of nodes and paths has a great role in the accuracy of program results GAOCPN written in C++ version 5.0 under Window. The program was applied on many networks, such as Al-Sarafiya Bridge networks, and the execution time and results were checked and compared with the execution time and results of traditional methods (dynamic programming) and Win_QSB program. The GAOCPN showed accuracy of results in a standard time. Sometimes, it showed optimal results better than those of the traditional methods and it showed results identical to Win_QSB but in standard time.