Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2011, Page 13-159

The Extended CG Method for Non-Quadratic Models

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Basim A. Hassan; Sawsan S. Ismael

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163604

This paper investigates an interleaved algorithm which combines between the extended conjugate gradient with the hybrid method of Touati-Storey. This combined algorithm is based on the exact line search to solve a number of non-linear test functions with different dimensions. Experimental results indicate that the modified  algorithm is more efficient than the original Sloboda algorithm.

Comparison of Finite Difference Solution Methods for Reaction Diffusion System in Two Dimensions

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Saad A. Manaa; Abdulghafor M. Al-Rozbayani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 21-36
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163605

In this paper, we study three types of finite difference methods, to find the numerical solution of reaction difference systems of PDEs in two dimensions. These methods are ADE, ADI and Hopscotch, where Gray-Scott model in two dimensions has been considered. Our numerical results show that the ADI method produces more accurate and stable solution than ADE method and Hopscotch method is the best because does not involve any tridiagonal matrix. Also we studied the consistency, stability and convergence of the above methods.

New Construction and New Error Bounds for (0, 2, 4) Lacunary Interpolation By Six Degree Spline

Karwan H. Jwamer; Ridha G. Karem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163606

The object of this paper obtains the existence, uniqueness and upper bounds for errors of six degree splines interpolating the lacunary data (0, 2, 4). We also show that the changes of  the boundary conditions and the class of spline functions has a main role in minimizing the upper bounds for error in lacunary interpolation problem. For this reason, in the construction of our spline function which interpolates the lacunary data (0, 2, 4). We changed the boundary condition and the class of spline functions which are given by [4] from first derivative to third derivative and the class of spline function from   to   .

Neural Network with Madaline for Machine Printed English Character Recognition

Shaymaa M. Al-mashahadany

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 47-58
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163607

The recognition of optical characters is known to be one of the earliest applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence.
In this research the application of neural networks to the problem of identifying English machine printed characters in an automated manner is developed. A preprocessing step is implemented to separate each character from the others. After that a feature extraction process is applied on each character to obtain the minimum nodes by using Mean, Standard Deviation, and Variance. Madaline neural network is trained on a 26 alphabetical English characters with a standard font and size. And tested on these characters to verify each character image belongs to which type of character. This is done by using MATLAB®2008a.

Existence, Uniqueness and Stability Theorems for Certain Functional Fractional Initial Value Problem

Joseph G. Abulahad; Shayma A. Murad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 59-70
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163608

In this paper, we deal with non-linear  functional fractional differential  equation  with initial condition in  space. We will study the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution of  fractional differential equation.

On N–Flat Rings

Raida D. Mahmood; Husam Q. Mohammad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 71-77
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163609

Let I be a right ideal of R, then R / I is a right N–flat if and only if for each a Î I, there exists b Î I and a positive integer n such that an ≠ 0 and an = ban. In this paper, we first give and develop various properties of right N-flat rings, by which, many of the known results are extended. Also, we study the relations between such rings and regular, p-biregular ring.

Intrusion Detection System Based on Decision Tree and Clustered Continuous Inputs

Adel S. Issa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 79-87
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163610

With the rapid expansion of computer networks during the past decade, security has become a crucial issue for computer systems. Different soft-computing based methods have been proposed in recent years for the development of intrusion detection systems (IDSs). The purpose of this paper is to use ID3 algorithm for IDS and extend it to deal not only with discreet values, but also with continuous ones, by using K_mean algorithm to partition each continuous attribute values to three clusters. The full 10% KDD Cup 99 train dataset and the full Correct test dataset are used. The results of the proposed method show an improvement in the performance as compared to standard ID3 using classical partition method.

Hybrid Technique Used for Straight Line Detection

Fawziya Mahmood Ramo; Nidhal Al-Assady; Khalil I. Al-Saif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 89-103
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163611

Many techniques have been used in this research to detect straight line in digital image on the same samples. These techniques are:1-Hough Transform(HT), Develpoed Baron’s Method (DBM)and-Genetic Developed Baron’s Method(GDBM)
    First technique was applied as it, while the second technique was applied after performing some modification in its algorithm. The third technique hybrid DBM (second technique) with GA, after performing the three techniques the accuracy and execution time for each technique is calculated. The experiment show that the hybrid technique relatively fast and it achieves high performance. It produces (90%) detection rate. MATLAB language has been used in the implementation of this software.

Iterative Image Interpolation vs. Traditional Interpolation Methods

Samia Sh. Lazar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 105-116
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163612

Image interpolation is an important image processing operation applied in diverse areas ranging from computer graphics, rendering, editing, medical image reconstruction, and online image viewing. In this paper, image is interpolated from a lower resolution (LR) to a higher resolution (HR) based on the combination of two different procedures. First, an adaptive algorithm interpolating locally image pixel values along the direction is applied, where second order image derivative is low. Then interpolated values are modified using an iterative refinement to minimize the differences in second order image derivatives, maximize the second order derivative values and smooth the curves. The first algorithm itself provides edge-preserving images that are measurable better than those obtained with conventional methods presented in this literature. Objective and subjective tests on a series of natural images show the advantages of the used technique over existing approaches.

A Survey of Two Optimization Methods to Solve a Modified Minimal Spanning Tree Problem in Undirected Tree Graph

Isra N. Alkallak; Ruqaya Z. Sha’ban

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 117-134
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163613

The paper tackled a survey of two optimization methods to study spanning tree problem by modifying the   spanning tree problem to generate all of possible solutions in undirected tree graph with simulated annealing algorithm and ant colony optimization algorithm. These algorithms are two of the optimization methods to find optimal solution from many of solutions in search space. A program is written in MATLAB 6.5 language to simulate these two algorithms with spanning tree problem. The experimental results in this paper show the effectiveness and easy implementation of each algorithm to find optimal solution, and to perform significantly better than the manual method.

Efficiency of Four Virtual LANs Switches with Equal Processing Times

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Wijdan Y.A. Al-Karim; Rana A. Mohamed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 147-156
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163615

Virtual LANs (VLANs) are introduced as some alternative switches to solve for the traffic problems of those LAN networks with Hubs. The idea is to create some collections in the whole LAN network, such collections are the so called VLANs. Appropriate switches (one switch or more of up to 24 ports) are designed to interconnect those VLANs. The design of such VLAN switches looks like the design of Look-Up tables to facilitate routing (similar to those used in CISCO networks). In this paper, an analytical model for such VLANs is proposed and then compared with single VLAN switch from the point of view of validity and speed characteristics.

Existence Results of Fractional Mixed Volterra -Fredholm Integrodifferential Equations with Integral Boundary Conditions

Sohaib T. Hasan; Rabeea M. Hani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 157-169
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163616

In this paper, we give an existence results for the fractional mixed Volterra -Fredholm integrodifferential equation with Integral Boundary Conditions. First, we use the Banach contraction principle to prove the existence and the uniqueness of the solution for the boundary value problem. Second, we study the existence of the solutions for the boundary value problem. using Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem.

An Approximate Solution to The Newell-Whitehead Equation by Adomian Decomposition Method

Saad A. Manaa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 171-180
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163617

In this paper, we solved the Newell-Whitehead equation approximately using Adomain Decomposition method and we have compared this solution with the exact solution; we found that the solution of this method is so close to the exact solution and this solution is slower to converge to the exact solution when we increase t however,  this method is effective for this kind of problems.  

New Hybrid Cutting Plane Method For Solving Integer Linear Programming Problems

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Nawar N. Abdullah

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163619

This work deals with a new method for solving Integer Linear Programming Problems depending on a previous methods for solving these problems such that Branch and Bound method and Cutting Planes method where this new method is a combination between them and we called it Cut and Branch method, The reasons which led to this combination between Cutting Planes method and Branch and Bound method are to defeat from the drawbacks of both methods and especially the big number of iterations and the long time for the solving and getting of a results between the results of these methods where the Cut and Branch method took the good properties from the both methods.
And this work deals with solving a one problem of Integer Linear Programming Problems by Branch and Bound method and Cutting Planes method and the new method, and we made a programs on the computer for solving ten problems of Integer Linear Programming Problems by these methods then we got a good results and by that, the new method (Cut and Branch) became a good method for solving Integer Linear Programming Problems.
The combination method which we doing in this research opened a big and wide field in solving Integer Linear Programming Problems and finding the best solutions for them where we did the combination method again between the new method (Cut and Branch) and the Cutting Planes method then we got a new method with a very good results and solutions.

Embedding and Extracting the Watermark in Video Files using Intelligent Techniques

Shahba I. Khaleel

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 25-44
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163620

This research, design a watermarking system for embedding and extracting the watermark in video files. This research presented four-efficient and powerful ways to embed and extract the watermark, the extract which in turn characterized as blind since it does not need the original cover in the process of extracting the watermark. The first method established the mean and SVD, which relied on the conversion of Singular values decomposition SVD and calculate the average of the unique values which are resulting from the application of the SVD on each data frame of the video file that required for embedding by, and then this method has been improved by hybrid intelligence by using a genetic algorithm for embedding the watermark, which is a second method. And other two methods has been implemented in this research. The third and fourth methods use artificial neural networks to embed the watermark. Depending on the characteristics of the data frame we use elman and Jordan neural networks and we use genetic algorithm to generate the secret key. The four methods of watermark were efficient and robust against various attacks which was found by measuring the efficiency of the methods by calculating the values of the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio PSNR and the correlation coefficient Normalized Correlation Coefficient NCC.

Adopting Egin Value of Speech Signal in Distinguishing the Gender of the Speaker

Maysoon Khidr Al-Nuaimi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 45-56
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163621

In this research a new approach was to represent the speech signal into two dimensional array to make it suitable for evaluating the egin value for this signal.
So many samples of speech signal for both male/female were adopted to generate a threshold for the eign value of male/female after reduce most of the high frequencies from the speech signal using  Fourier transform. Then the correlation  factor to be measured between the input signal and the threshold values for both  male and female، Then found the range of the correlation between the carve of egin value of input  signal and threshold one of both groups.
The adopted algorithm pass about 90 % of the tested samples of male and 85 % of the female.

Stability Analysis of Flow in Thin Liquid Film Under Heat Effect

Zena Talal Al-Nuamy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 57-64
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163623

This research is dedicated for analyzing the stability of system of flow equations for a delicate chip of a fluid exposed for medium heat ,where we found the growth of disturbance exist or  not after making the system linearization it was shown through the results of analysis that these equations were in stable state when the real part of the wave velocity(α) is a negative quantity and it is unstable state when the real part of this velocity is positive quantity , We get stability and this happens when the Reynold's number is positive quantity i.e. R>0 . and when α>0 we get unstable state and this happens when the heat conductivity is a positive quantity.

Finite Differences Methods for solving Korteweg-de Vries-Burger's Equation

Ekhlass S. Al-Rawi; Almutasim Albaker

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 65-80
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163624

In this paper we solved the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger's equation numerically by finite difference methods, using two different schemes which are the Fully Implicit scheme and the Exponential finite difference scheme, because of the existence of the third derivative in the equation we suggested a treatment for the  numerical solution by parting the mesh grid into five regions, the first region represents the first boundary condition, the second one at the grid point , while the third represents the grid points , the fourth represents the grid point  and the fifth is for the second boundary condition .  
We also studied the numerical stability, using Fourier (Von-Neumann) method for the two schemes which used in the solution on all mesh points to ensure the stability of the point which had been treated in the suggested style. Numerical results obtained by using these schemes are compared with existing analytical results. Excellent agreement was found between the exact solution and approximate solutions obtained by these schemes. The obtained approximate numerical solutions maintain good accuracy compared with exact solution specially for small values of the viscosity parameter.

Studying the Stability of One of Non-Linear Autoregressive Relational Models

Abdulghafoor Gasim Salim; Hamed Mohammed Kalaf

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 81-95
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163625

Time series are usually built on basic assumptions involving stability, Linearity and normality, these three features are so important in both  estimating and building the time series models.
The study of time series involves these assumption and how to manipulate the unstable time series on the basis of which the suitable mathematical models fit for  these series.
In this paper, we suggestion the stationarity of one of the non linear -Autoregressive time series models called rational model has been studied which is a fraction whose numerator is the cosine function and its denominator is an exponential Autoregressive models. The singular point and the limit cycle of the models and its stationarity study have been found by adopting the linear approximation technique.

Speech Synthesis of Arabic Vocabularies

Enaam Ghanim Saeed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 97-107
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163626

In this paper, system is presented for speech synthesis of Arabic vocabularies written with diacritics, graphemes transfer to allophones by applying the phonological rules. The system depend on phonetics units series every unite consists of one ore more phonetic character. We create linguistic group from Arabic phonemes and a group of phonological rules and special and unusual cases by designing special function for this purpose. We use (visual basic v.6) to design this system. Evaluation of the system was undertaken to assess the accuracy on word and sentence levels. The results showed high perception levels about 84 %.

Employment the Object Oriented Idea with Relational Database using by Ado.Net

Ban Ghanm M.

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 109-129
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163627

With the development of technology and appearing of computers that simplified many of computer and logical applications, so the developed with all capabilities to take and give the benefit in the same time, it is necessary because the updating and extending in bank operation space by using the computer which became the spinal cord in managing these operation. This research present the system that simplicity and quicklicity of the bank job by inserting, deleting, data viewing and information and special reports extracting to any customer instead of the manual usage which is usually doing probability of mistakes is large and data corruption. We depend on ADO.NET technology to data base access which more advance technology that is presented from micro soft to support language that not special in database like visual basic, visual java, visual C++, etc. ADO.NET  technology was presented to programmers who specialist not in data base language. it enables to database access and manipulating with it in  higher degree of simple and flexible way by mixing the command s of programming language with SQL commands to use data base in all applications.

Dual Hiding in Digital Image Files

Farah Tareq Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 131-147
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163629

The technique of information hiding is one of information security techniques, which works on embedding information on media in such a way that avoid bringing suspicion of discovering transmission between two ends.
In this paper, a modified algorithm is suggested depending on two principles: double information hiding and multiple watermarking. The first principle is represented by cryptography and steganography in a way that each method work separately from the other to ensure a secure content that embedded in the message. While the second principle depends on multiple watermarking represented by images with secret key in a gray image to achieve authentication and accuracy of sending data. Cryptography is used to protect binary image (original watermarking) by using a secret key and embedding more than watermarking (binary and gray images) inside cover file (color image) by using signature (data) that have been taken from the cover file and adopted in the spatial domain for hiding data.

Studying the Stability of one of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Application

Abdulghafoor Gasim Salim; Raadi Awad Alhamdan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 149-159
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163630

In This paper we suggest one of the models for non-linear Autoregressive by using local linear approximation method, then we studied the conditions of stationarity of the model specifically the conditions of stationarity the non-zero singular point of the model. And the conditions for stationarity to limit cycle stationarity.
            Conditions are applied in the aforementioned theories on data represent the monthly average wind speed in model of Baghdad city. The samples are classified by using  one of non-linear Autoregressive model the findings are the value of non-zero fixed point and the conditions of suggested stationarity model .