Volume 7, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2010, Page 13-209

A New hybrid generalized CG- method for non-linear functions

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Hamsa Th. Chilmerane

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163843

In this paper a new extended generalized conjugate gradient algorithm is proposed for unconstrained optimization, which is considered as anew inverse hyperbolic model .In order to improve the rate of convergence of the new technique, a new hybrid technique between the standard F/R CG-method and Sloboda CG-method using quadratic and non-quadratic models is proposed by using exact and inexact line searches. This method is more efficient and robust when applied on number of well-known nonlinear test function.

A New Conjugate Gradient Method for Finding the Minimum of Non Linear Functions

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Basim A. Hassan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163844

This paper presents the development and implementation of a new numerical algorithm for solving nonlinear optimization problems. The algorithm is implemented inexact line searches. Powell restarting restart criterion is applied to all the above versions and give dramatic saving in computational efficiency. The results obtained both theoretically and experimentally indicate that in general the new algorithm is superior an standard algorithms using seven nonlinear test-functions with (20) differs dimensions.

An Efficient Line Search Algorithm for Large Scale Optimization

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Ivan S. Latif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 35-49
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163845

In this work we present a new algorithm of gradient descent type, in which the stepsize is computed by means of simple approximation of the Hessian Matrix to solve nonlinear unconstrained optimization function. The new proposed algorithm considers a new approximation of the Hessian based on the function values and its gradients in two successive points along the iterations one of them use Biggs modified formula to locate the new points. The corresponding algorithm belongs to the same class of superlinear convergent descent algorithms and it has been newly programmed to obtain the numerical results for a selected class of nonlinear test functions with various dimensions. Numerical experiments show that the new choice of the step-length required less computation work and greatly speeded up the convergence of the gradient algorithm especially, for large scaled unconstrained optimization problems.

On Rings Whose Simple Singular R-Modules Are Flat, I

Raida D. Mahmood; Abdullah M. Abdul-Jabbar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 51-57
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163846

      In this paper we investigate von Neumann regularity of rings whose simple singular right R-modules are flat. It is proved that a ring R is strongly regular if and only if R is a semiprime right quasi-duo ring whose simple singular right R-modules are flat. Moreover, it is shown that if R is a P. I.-ring whose simple singular right R-modules are flat, then R is a strongly p-regular ring. Finally, it is shown that if R is a right continuous ring whose simple singular right R-modules are flat, then R is a von Neumann regular ring.

A Binary Integer Programming model for computing DNA Sequence Alignment

Nawar N. Qubat

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 59-80
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163847

DNA Sequence Alignment is an important problem in computational biology and is useful for comparing genomes and finding genes, for determining evolutionary linkage of different biological sequences. Dynamic Programming Problems is discussed and applied to solve this problem. This paper is concerned with computing DNA Sequence Alignment firstly by formulating a Binary Integer Programming model to compute the string sequence in Edit Distance Problem then re-formulating this model to be suitable to compute this alignment. By this model we gave a good role for Operations Researches field to prove it's efficient to solve problems of molecule of life. The suggested model is applied to solve an example in Edit Distance Problem then used again after re-formulating it for an example in DNA Sequence Alignment Problem.        

Using "Filter" Approach to Solve the Constrained Optimization Problems

Ban Ahmed Mitras

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 99-107
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163849

In this paper, the solution of constrained nonlinear programming problems by a Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) is considered. The aim of the present work is to promote global convergence without the need to use a penalty and Barrier functions in the mixed interior-exterior point method. Instead, a new concept of a “filter” that aims to minimize the objective function and its approach that allows appoint to be accepted if reduces the objective function and satisfies the constraint violation function. If that point is rejected a new point is tested.

Complex Dynamics of the family

Salma M. Faris

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 109-116
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163850

The aim of this work is to study the complex dynamics of the family   F={ ,}, of transcendental meromorphic functions. We prove that certain intervals are contained in J(f) or in F(f ) and we prove  that Julia set contains and show that Fatou set of the functions in F contains certain components for different values of . We characterize Julia set of  , for different values of, as the closure of the escaping points, and use this characterization to give computer images for these sets. 

An Application of Integration (GBOM & GPS) for Quick Response Manufacturing

Akela M. Al-Atroshi; Sama T. Al-Aubaidy; Salar J. Abdul hameed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 117-133
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163851

The current paper aims at treating a fundamental problem which is the large volume of operating data associated with increasing the variety, high competition and production according to (Quick Response Manufacturing ) system .Thus, the current study focuses on link the Generic Bill of Material file (GBOM) and Generic Product Structure file (GPS) to creating ( BOMO) Approach as the main requirement for applying (QRM) system, because this approach contributes, to a high extent, in reducing deadlines of production by achieving the simultaneous timing in performing processes .
In order to fulfill the aims of the current study, a database is designed by using (Oracle ), then applied practically to a real product(a three–drawer desk). The results are exhibited within the framework of (BOMO) through the integration between (BOMO) and the (Routing) of the product .

Wnil-Injective Modules

Raida D. Mahmood; Husam Q. Mohammad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 135-143
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163852

A right module M is called Wnil-injective if for any 0 ¹ a Î N( R ), there exists a positive integer n such that an ¹ 0 and any right R-homomorphism f : anR ® M can be extended to R ® M. In this paper , we first give and develope various properties of right Wnil-injective rings, by which, many of the known results are extended. Also, we study the relations between such rings and reduced rings by adding some types of rings, such as SRB-rings, and other types of rings.

Despeckling of SAR Imagery Using Contourlet Transform in A Homomorphic Framework

Hala N. Fathee

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 151-164
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163854

In this paper, a homomorphic framework is used for the enhancement and retrieval of speckled image. The log function at the starting of the structure is used to transform the speckled image (with multiplication noise) to a noisy image (with additive noise). This image is then applied to classical contourlet transform to decompose the noisy image into approximation and details. To retrieve the image without speckle noise, some suitable threshold level is chosen.  In the reconstruction  part, inverse contourlet transform is performed with an exponential function to compensate for the log one. The proposed technique is compared with other techniques. The result of comparison reflects the proposed technique superiority.      

Solution of Eighth Order Boundary Value Problems Using Differential Transformation Technique

Merna A. Samarchi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 165-179
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163855

       In this paper we have applied the Differential Transform Method (DTM) for solving eighth-order boundary value problems. The analytical and numerical results of the equations have been obtained in terms of convergent series with the easily computable components.  Three examples are considered for the numerical illustrate and implementation of this method. Numerical Comparisons with respect to the analytical solutions have been considered . It is observed that the method is an alternative and efficient for finding the approximate solutions of the boundary values problems.

On Infinitesimal Approximation of a Continuous Function

Tahir H. Ismail

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 181-186
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163856

If  and  are convex subsets in , and  in  for all . If the approximation family is the set
            An Infinitesimal approximation of  an element in  established in [4],[5]. A characterization of an infinitesimal approximation, necessary and sufficient conditions for the unique infinitesimal approximation are obtained.

Modeling the Drainage of aVertical Thin Liquid Film

Joseph G. Abdulahad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 187-197
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163857

In this paper, we consider the drainage of a vertical thin liquid film and we study the case of instability in gravity driven flow of a vertical thin films. Throughout this work, we assumed that the fluid thickness is constant far behind the front and we neglect the thickness of the film at the beginning of the motion. The equation of the film thickness is obtained analytically, using the similarity method by which we can isolate the explicit time dependence and then the shape of the film will depend on one variable only.

Detour Hosoya Polynomials of Some Compound Graphs

Herish O. Abdullah; Gashaw A. Muhammed-Saleh

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 199-209
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163858

In this paper we will introduce a new graph distance based polynomial; Detour Hosoya polynomials of graphs . The Detour Hosoya polynomials  for some special graphs such as paths and cycles are obtained. Moreover the Detour Hosoya polynomials ,  and are obtained.

Numerical Stability Study of the Explicit-Implicit Range-Kuta Synthesis Methods (IMEX-ARK)

Thair Y. Thanoon; Younis Abd Hussain

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163861

In this research we studied the numerical stability for Implicit-Explicit Additive Runge-Kutta (IMEX-ARK) methods which have the          A[]-stability .This stability is equivalent A-stability of (B()-ARK) methods where B()=B1+(1-)B2 of second and third order for different intervals of values.This methods are suitable for solving stiff non-linear differential equations which has the form :
which contains stiff and non-stiff terms. We have used Matlab as programming tool .

Convert Autoregressive Process from Direct to Continuous Time with Application

Abdulghafoor Gasim Salim; Nihal Hashem Hamid

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 29-43
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163862

In this research,  we discuss the converting problem of auto-regression  models at discrete time into auto-regression models at continuous time, basing on the main idea of the scientist "Priestley" who discovered how to convert autoregression models from first and second order. He mentioned that there were difficulties in the process of conversion to reach the general  formula (that is to convert regression model from order p).[8]
            We then have got the conversion of the general formula AR(p) of converting it from discrete time to continuous time. Practically, we have built an autoregressive model of order one for the time-series of number of persons who were afflicted  with Hepatitis -B- after we have taken the first difference to the series.

Processing of Scheduling Problems in the Job Shop Using Fuzzy Logic

Baydaa S Bhnam

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 45-65
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163863

The research deals with a problem that concentrates on the use of fuzzy logic which sends the job orders for the purpose of the due dates to achieve  customer's satisfaction besides efficient flow of jobs among the production cells. To achieve the aims of the research , an algorithm for scheduling jobs has been achieved in the job shop which treats N jobs ( J1, J2,…..Jn) on M  machines (M1, M2,….Mm) . This algorithm is based on triangular member ship functions to express the fuzzy processing times and that through the treatment time of the operation and the release date and the due date.
The most notable findings of the research is the high degree of satisfaction of the job that are at the forefront  of chain, while it begins to decline whenever the sequence increases, i.e is whenever the number of the acts increases in the waiting line, and that is by determining the start time and end time of each job.

Encryption & Hiding Information in Internet Files HTML & XML

Dujan B. Taha; Ahmed S. Nori; Najla B. Ibraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 67-93
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163864

In order to achieve communication security, cryptography and information hiding in different media are used.
In this work, a system for hiding text in Internet files namely, HTML and XML has been built. Two proposed algorithms have been designed and implemented to embed and extract secret information from these files.
Hiding in HTML files was done by first encrypting the message using Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) and embed the encryption key into the HTML tags. Then, the encrypted secret message was embedded into an image in the HTML page.
Hiding in XML files was achieved using non linear feed back shift register to encrypt the secret message. The resultant encryption key was embedded inside XML definition file namely, Document Type Definition (DTD) file which is invisible to the user. The encrypted message was embedded inside the XML component of the file.
            Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithms are secure and efficient. The image carrying the secret information is identical (by Human Visual System HVS) to the original image as well as the ability to embed a lot of information inside the files. Visual C++ was used to access Internet files whereas Matlab Version 7 was used to implement the used encryption methods and graphical user interface.

Computer Network System for Fire Flame detection from Digital Video using Fractal Geometry

Laheeb M. Ibrahim; Khalil I, Alsaif; Hasan Maher Ahmed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 95-114
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163865

This research aims to build a computer network system that works on detecting and locating flame by using fractal geometry in the digital video through building the network system in a server-client structure through which the characteristics of both the server and the clients are determined.
A terminal stations were adapted to receive the digital video, and then divided into set of frames to be treated later on individually using fractal geometry (2 dimension variation algorithm to create fractal dimensions matrix). Studying and analyzing the value of the fractal dimensions of each frame, to identify the flame region by recognizing the common properties.
Applying the suggested algorithm on Various samples exceeding 300 colored digital images containing flames with different spectra have been selected. Those images are taken by digital cameras or downloaded from the internet. On the other hand, the application on digital video applied and exceed 100 sample.
Results show that using fractal dimension is an active and encouraging way in determining the characteristics of flame with its all spectra. No any negative evidence was recorded on all samples which exceed 100 sample from the digital video during the interval of the application test. Results also show the harmony and consistency in transferring process through the protocols that have been dealt with.

A Proposed Algorithm to Detect the Effect of an Object Within a Video Series

Abeer Abd Al-Khaliq Thanoon

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 115-133
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163866

In this research an algorithm for detecting a specific object and tracing its movement within a depicted series is proposed . A video file of the AVI type has been used since this type comprises a group of depicted frames . The dynamic path of the required target detected has been traced . It takes the form of a walking person. At the beginning, the detecting stage involves reading the frame and analyzing the structure of the picture by using co-occurrence matrix. The features of the picture's structure  are then represented in the form of  a chart, followed by cutting up the picture depending on the values of the chart in distributing of colours  in order to get the required detected object to be traced . The location of the object is then specified through the calculate of the area center of the target in each frame , and after that drawing its dynamic path by using Euclidean  Law for area along the depicted series.

Digital Image Segmentation Using SOM Network

Amera Istiqlal Badran

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 135-151
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163868

Image segmentation is one of the important stages in computer vision which is necessary for various applications such as robot control and identification of military targets, as will as image analysis of remote sensing applications.
In this paper the segmentation is implemented using k-means algorithm and minimum distance with and without SOM. Segmentation with SOM is done  via many stages. In the first stage initialization and reading of image is done as well as type identification and normalization.
In the second stage the neural network SOM is implemented on the resultant image to extract its main colors. In the final stage image segmentation is done by clustering method using k-means algorithm with minimum distance. Segmentation is implemented by the following steps:-
v  Image is segmented into two parts using two clusters centers.
v  Calculation of a suggested quality factor to test segmentation quality for that number of clusters.
v  Increment number of a clusters by one, calculate a new quality factor and compare it with the previous segmentation quality factor. Iterate this until the quality factor degrades and consider the previous classification as the right one.
v  When fixing right clusters centers, a new image is created by substitution of image pixel with cluster center value that is nearest to the pixel value and then displaying and saving the final image.
Finally comparison is done between the four cases of results. It has been shown from result that the use of SOM with k-means & Minimum distance algorithm in feasible, since it is depends on the variation of objects components of image.

Audio File Compression Using Counter Propagation Neural Network

Saja J. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 153-168
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163869

In this paper audio files are compressed using counter propagation neural network (CPNN) which is one of the fastest neural networks in multi media. The utilized counter propagation neural network was trained on uncompressed sound file to obtain the final weights of this CPNN (Kohonen layer, Grossberg layer ).
In compression operation: the sound signal segmented to number of frames equal in size. Then these frames are applied step by step, to the first layer of the neural network(kohonen layer) to obtain some compression results. The decompression operation done by retrieve stored information  in resulted file. This information is applied to second layer of this CPNN (Grosberg layer) which will perform decompression operation and retrieve the original sound file. The proposed algorithm is applied on (.wav) audio files , The results show high performance in addition to short time in compression and decompression operation.

The Numerical Solution and the Convergence Analysis of the Hybrid Method between the Special Insertion and the Iterative Method

Anne Jalal Al-Saour; Iman Abdel-Wahab Ahmed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-186
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163870

This paper devoted to find the solution of the Vanishing Neutral Differential Equations (VNDEs). After having reviewed the ARCHI code, which was originally written by Paul with the aim of solving neutral differential equations, an improvement of this code will be presented in this paper to solve problems of VNDEs. This improvement is done by suggesting a hybrid method of special interpolants with iteration procedure of RK method. We will analyze the convergence of the suggested hybrid method. We conclude that the criteria of convergence for this method is:                                                                                 
and when    , we have , that is the solution is convergent and the derivative of the solution is also convergent for VNDEs.