Volume 6, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2009, Page 11-266

Using the Improvement of the Fixed Point Iterative Method in Solving Fredholm Integral Equations

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163792

In this paper an iterative method for the fixed point is used to obtain an approximation solution for the Fredholm integral equations of the second kind by using several problems with different accuracy .Also we have proposed a successful improvement for the iterative fixed point method. A number of different tests are solved and compared in order to study the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

On New Conjugate Pair Method

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Nidhal Al-Assady; Ban Ahmed Mitras

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 21-29
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163793

This paper involves the combination between the conjugate pair and hybrid conjugate gradient methods. The new combined algorithm is based on exact line search and it is examined by using different nonlinear test functions in various dimensions.  Experimental results indicate that the updated algorithm is more effective than of the two original algorithms.

PILP-rings and fuzzy ideals

Raida D. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163794

In this paper, we study rings whose principal right ideals are left pure. Also we shall introduce the concept of a fuzzy bi-ideal in a ring, and give some properties of such fuzzy ideals. We also give a characterization of whose principal right ideal are left pure, fuzzy duo ring in terms of fuzzy deals.

A Generalized Curvature of a Generalized Envelope

Tahir H. Ismail; Ibrahim O. Hamad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163795

In this paper we study one of the applications of a generalized curvature [3] on the generalized envelope of a family of lines given in [7], [8], using some concepts of nonstandard analysis given by Robinson, A. [5] and axiomatized by Nelson, E..

Dynamic Programming Algorithms for Solving Single Machine Scheduling Problems with a Fixed Complexity Time

Kawa A. Al-Qazilchy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 49-59
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163796

We solvein this paper some machine scheduling problems with certain conditions; the solution had been made by using dynamic programming procedures with a fixed time for all the algorithms. Some of the algorithms described in the paper represent a modification to some mathematical programming algorithms and some of them are new or a generalization to others. The optimal solution of all these algorithms will be done with a fixed complexity time, which may lead us to solve them easier and faster.

Numerical Solution and Stability Analysis for Burger's-Huxley Equation

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163797

The Burger’s-Huxley equation has been solved numerically by using two finite difference methods, the explicit scheme and the Crank-Nicholson scheme. A comparison between the two schemes has been made and it has been found that, the first scheme is simpler while the second scheme is more accurate and has faster convergent. Also, the stability analysis of the two methods by using Fourier (Von Neumann) method has been done and the results were that, the explicit scheme is stable under the condition   and the Crank-Nicholson is unconditionally stable.

On Representation Theorem for Algebras with Three Commuting Involutions

Amir A. Mohammed; Baida S. Abdullah; Nadwa S. Younis

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163798

Algebras with three commuting involutions are represented as commutants of one-generated ¯ – £ –  subalgebras of algebras of vector-space endomorphisms where  ¯ – £ and  are involutions of a prefixed type.

Hosoya Polynomials of Steiner Distance of the Sequential Join of Graphs

Herish O. Abdullah

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163799

The Hosoya polynomials of Steiner n-distance of the sequential join of graphs  and  are obtained and the Hosoya polynomials of Steiner 3-distance of the sequential join of m graphs  are also obtained.

Detection of Face Direction by Implementing Face Edge Patterns

Jarjees A. Khidir

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 97-104
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163800

In this paper, a method for detecting the direction of a human face is developed; regardless of its age or sex.  The method involves creating a set of five face patterns representing the front, up, down, left, and right directions of a face. The face patterns are produced by applying Canny’s edge detection algorithm on some face files. The direction of the input face is found by first applying the above algorithm on the input file and comparing it with the five face patterns. The face pattern that gives minimum difference will represent the direction of the input face. Excellent results were reported when applied on images with relatively clear background and the head were centered at the image area.

Iris Recognition System Based on Wavelet Transform

Maha A. Hasso; Bayez K. Al-Sulaifanie; Kaydar M. Quboa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 105-116
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163801

In order to provide accurate recognition of individuals, the most discriminating information present in an iris pattern must be extracted. Only the significant features of the iris must be encoded so that comparisons between templates can be made. Most iris recognition systems make use of a band pass decomposition of the iris image to create a biometric template. In this paper, the feature extraction techniques are improved and implemented. These techniques are using wavelet filters. The encoded data by wavelet filters are converted to binary code to represent the biometric template. The Hamming distance is used to classify the iris templates, and the False Accept Rate (FAR), False Reject Rate (FRR)  and recognition rate (RR)  are calculated [1].
The wavelet transform using DAUB12 filter proves that it is a good feature extraction technique. It gives equal FAR and FRR  and a high recognition rate for the two used databases. When applying the DAUB12 filter to CASIA database, the FAR and FRR are equal to 1.053%, while the recognition rate is 97.89%. For Bath database the recognition rate when applying DAUB12 filter is 100%. CASIA and Bath databases are obtained through personal communication. These databases are used in this paper.

The n-Wiener Polynomials of the Cartesian Product of a Complete Graph with some Special Graphs

Ali Aziz Ali; Haveen G. Ahmed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 117-128
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163802

The n-Wiener polynomials of the Cartesian products of a complete graph Kt with another complete graph Kr, a star graph Sr, a complete bipartite graph Kr,s, a wheel Wr, and a path graph Pr are obtained in this paper. The n-diameters and the n-Wiener indices of Kt×Kr, Kt×Sr, Kt×Kr,s, Kt×Wr and Kt×Pr are also obtained.

Joint Numerical Range of Matrix Polynomials

Ahmed M. Sabir

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 129-136
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163803

Some algebraic properties of the sharp points of the joint numerical range of a matrix polynomials are the main subject of this paper. We also consider isolated points of the joint numerical range of matrix polynomials.

Efficient Genetic Algorithms for Arabic Handwritten Characters Recognition

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 137-157
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163804

The main challenge in Arabic handwritten character recognition involves the development of a method that can generate descriptions of the handwritten objects in a short period of time high recognition rate. Due to its low computational requirement, genetic algorithm is probably the most efficient method available for character recognition. In this research we use objective of genetic algorithm where the minimization of the number of features and a validity index that measures the quality of clusters have been used to guide the search towards the more discriminate  features and the best number of clusters, and use Hopfield Neural Network as recognizer.
In this research Arabic handwritten characters recognition is applied. Experiments show the efficiency and flexibility of the proposed system, and show that Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Hopfield neural network are applied here to improve the recognition accuracy and make the recognition operation faster.

A Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Solve Assignment Problem by Hungarian Method

Isra N. Alkallak

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 159-175
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163805

This research studied ant colony optimization with optimization problem as an assignment model problem by Hungarian method. The proposed heuristic algorithm simulate ant colony optimization algorithm with  Hungarian method for Assignment   problem. The ant colony optimization algorithm simulates  the behavior of  real ant colony, to find the shortest path between many paths for solving the problem. It dependent on the path from the nest (problem of research) to food (optimal solution) by deposited pheromone on the path they take between the nest and food, so that other ants can smell it.
The experiment in this research  shows that the algorithm provides optimal solution. It  has outperforms with computation and it is an effective approach  and the algorithm performs significantly better than the classical method, to  reduce the region of the space considered and computation as compared to the classical methods.

Linear Codes Arise From New Complete (n,r)-arcs in PG(2,29)

Shuaa Aziz

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 177-184
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163806

This paper presents the recently-discovered linear [n,3,d] codes over PG(2,29) that arises from a complete (n,r)-arcs which the paper[12] presented it for the first time. The aim of this paper is to formulate the recently discovered upper bounds and lower bound for (n,r)-arcs as bounds that will look familiar to coding theorists.New two lists in this paper appeared, the first list of 15 codes arranged from[164,3,156]-code up to [704,3,678]-code, the second list of  27 codes arranged from [28,3,25]-code up to [776,3,747]-code, they are appeared for the first time in this paper, all of these codes we can call them as complete codes as thier definition in this paper, they belong to the class of  error-correcting codes (ECC).In this paper I made a computer programs to construct these new codes with Random Greedy Construction method (RGC)  which is mentioned in [13].

Cryptanalysis Knapsack Cipher Using Artificial Immune System

Eman Th. Al-Obaidy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 185-195
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163807

In this work, the use of an artificial immune system (AIS ) in  cryptanalysis  is explored. This AIS uses the clonal selection principle for the cryptanalysis of knapsack cipher. Results showed that the proposed approach is good especially when the effect of the control parameters on the performance of the clonal selection  is well taken into consideration.  The program is written  in Turbo C.

A Generalization of Von Neumann Regular Rings

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 197-210
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163808

In this paper, we introduce a new ring which is a generalization of Von Neumann  regular rings and we call it a centrally regular ring. Several properties of this ring are proved and we have extended many properties of regular rings to centrally regular rings. Also we have determined some conditions under which regular and centrally regular rings are equivalent.

Face Recognition using Artificial Intelligent Techniques

Laheeb Mohammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim A. Saleh

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 211-227
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163809

Face recognition is considered one of the visual tasks which humans can do almost effortlessly while for computers it is a difficult and challenging task. This research deals with the problem of face recognition. A novel approach is presented for both face feature extraction and recognition, first, we introduce Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for face feature extraction, Generalized Regression Artificial Neural network for face recognition. The performance of the whole system was done after training with 120 color images (40 human faces with 3 poses) and testing using 40 color images. The images were taken from Collection of Facial Images: Faces95 by Computer Vision Science Research Projects. Experimental results for proposed human face recognition confirm that the proposed method lends itself to good extraction and classification accuracy relative to existing techniques.

Artificial Intelligent Techniques with Watermarking

Nada N. Saleem; Baydaa I. Khaleel; Shahbaa I. Khaleel

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 229-266
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163810

This research presents three robust blind watermarking algorithms in the discrete wavelet transform and spatial domain based on neural network and fuzzy logic artificial intelligent techniques. To enhance the performance of the watermarking system the first algorithm is developed by combining Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) using (DWT-RBFW) algorithm for embedding and extracting of watermark. The second developed (RBFW) algorithm used RBF neural network for embedding and extracting of watermark based on intensity of whole image. The third developed (FL-EXPW) watermarking method is based on fuzzy logic and expert system techniques and it’s the best algorithm among the three methods. The developed watermarking algorithms are robust against various attacks signal processing operations such as additive noise and jpeg compression, and geometric transformations.

Using the Update of Conditional BFGS in Constrained Optimization

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Ban Ahmed Mitras

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163812

In this paper, we have used one of the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm with the Quasi – Newton approximation; namely the BFGS preconditioned algorithm which was suggested by (AL-Bayati and Aref, 2001). In this paper we have suggested a new algorithm for constrained optimization with robust numerical results, for solving constrained optimization problems.

Stability Analysis of Convection & Diffusion equation

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 21-31
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163813

The Stability Analysis of Convection& Diffusion equation by using Fourier mode Stability analysis in two cases has been considered , the first one when the amplitude is constant and the second one when the amplitude is variable .
In the first case, the solution is always stable and in the second case the solution is conditionally stable .

Discrimination Features by Wavelet Transformation

Faten A. Mustafa; Turkan A. Khalil; Almas A. Khalil

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 33-46
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163814

Recently, techniques and applications in space data processing it's and study characteristics in different areas and applications such as remote sensing study of land use, land cover and geological applications are increased.
The research contained study and application of technical wavelet transformation to highlight information packages statement space for Mosul Dam and extracting ground obvious manifestations of this region by applying the classification on the wave beam generated.
The results showed that the classification of images resulting from the wavelet transformation was accurate and of high amount (%96.715) compared to the results of the classification of non-original images using the improved wavelet transformation, with the accuracy of the classification (%92.652) and to obtain a clear picture parameters for the study of high quality. especially when discrimination features such as terrestrial lake, the body of dams and residential areas in addition to discrimination agricultural areas, the classification algorithm, which was used in this study, is an algorithm of Mahalanobis Distance.

Remove Noise from Grayscale Digital Images by Traditional and Fuzzy Filters

Baydaa I. Khalil

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 47-100
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163815

Image denoising and enhancement is an important field and it is used very much in image processing, where images are corrupted by many kinds of noise, therefore, methods and techniques must be used to remove these noises. In this research seven traditional filters are used to remove noise from digital images corrupted with salt&pepper noise and Gaussian noise. And also adopting principle of fuzzy logic to hybrid between traditional filters and fuzzy logic using double bell shaped membership function and also hybrid with double adjusted sigmoid  membership function to create seven fuzzy sigmoidal filters. After applying seven traditional methods, seven fuzzy bell methods and seven fuzzy sigmoidal methods , by using measures of restored image PSNR, MSE, MAE , shows the final methods i.e. seven fuzzy sigmoidal methods are better than other filters i.e. methods that are used in this research after comparing the results.

Flow Stability Analysis of the Shallow Water Equations Model

Ashraf S. Aboudi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 101-118
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163816

This paper is devoted to analyze the stability of shallow water of a system of equations that was exposed to disturbancing. This analysis is done by finding the eigenvalues of the system which enables us to investigate the grow of disturbance after setting shallow water equations in linearization form. It is obtain from the results analysis that the equations are stable when the real part of wave velocity is negative ,and unstable when it is positive.