### Volume 3, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2006, Page 11-126

##### Straight Line Detection Using Hough Transform in Grey Images

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 11-21

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164032

In image processing, one of the main difficulties encountered in line detection is due to the various appearances of lines to be detected. This research presents a recognition method for line using Hough Transform (HT) .Applying erosion continuously to reach one pixel width of the generated skeleton for the image. Presented results are illustrating the utility of a new approach to know the content of an image, then store it using it's parameters and reconstruct it without the need to open it.

##### Software for Arabic Machine Printed Optical Character Recognition (MACRS)

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 23-41

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164033

Machine printed Arabic Character Recognition System (MACRS] is concerned with recognition of machine printed alphanumeric Arabic characters. In the present work, characters have been represented (extracted) by using geometric moment invariant (3 order). The technique used in this research can be divided into three major steps. The first step is digitization and preprocessing to create connected component, detect the skew of a character image and correct it. The second is feature extraction, where geometric moment invariant features of the input, Arabic character is used to extract features. Finally, we describe an advanced system of classification using probabilistic neural networks structure which yields significant speed improvements. MACRS is tested using 2961 patterns for a total 141 classes with roughly 21 patterns in each class. It is important to note here that the system performs extremely well with recognition rates ranging between 84% and 88% on different folds and the overall recognition is 85.8%. This is a very good performance taking into account the fact that we have a limited number of samples in each class and that, the recognition on the training data is also extremely high (99.8%) which represents a very good training.

##### A Rational Triangle Function as a Model for a Conjugate Gradient Optimization Method.

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 43-54

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164034

This paper presents the development and implementation of a new numberical based on a non-quadratic Triangular rational function model. For solving non-linear optimization problem .The algorithm is implemented in one version, employing exact line search. This version is compared numberically against versions of the CG-method. The results indicate that in general the new algorithm is superior to the previon algorithm.

##### On Weakly Regular Rings and SSF-rings

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 55-59

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164035

In this work we consider weakly regular rings whose simple singular right R-Modules are flat. We also consider the condition (*): R satisfies L(a)Ír(a) for any aÎR. We prove that if R satisfies(*) and whose simple singular right R-module are flat, then Z (R) the center of R is a von Neunann regular ring. We also show that a ring R either satisfies (*) or a strongly right bounded ring in which every simple singular right R-module is flat, then R is reduced weakly regular rings.

** **

##### New Initial Parameter for the Constrained Optimization Method

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 61-68

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164036

In this paper, we have investigated a new initial parameter in the nonlinear constrained optimization method. The aim of this new method is to make a balance between interior and exterior method for constrained optimization. The new technique has been programmed to solve some of standard problems in the non-linear optimization. The results are too effective when compared with other standard optimization methods like interior and exterior methods.

##### Solving the Multi Objective Programming Problem Using Mean and Median Value

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 69-83

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164037

In this paper, the present algorithm [4] to solve fractional programming problem for multi objective functions, investigate the algorithm to solve linear programming problem for multiobjective functions [2], the computer application of algorithm was tested on a number of numerical examples and modify the approach by using mean and median for values of objective functions, to combine objective function from objective functions for linear programming problem for multi objective functions then it has been improved the above algorithm to solve the problem and computer application of improvement algorithm has been demonstrated by a flow chart and solving numerical examples on the computer then the good results have been often, as compared to the previous method [2].

##### An Extension Use of ADI Method in the Solution of Biharmonic Equation

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 85-94

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164038

The Biharmonic equation is one of partial differential equations which arise from discussion of some applied sciences such as fluid dynamics. In this paper, we have adopted a numerical method to solve that equation, this method is developed basically from ADI (Alternating- Direction- Implicit) finite difference method which was used in the solution of Laplace equation.

##### A New Newton-Wavelet Algorithm to Solve Non-Linear Equations

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 95-109

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164039

In this research, a new algorithm to solve the non-linear equations (f(x)=0) was developed. The new method was called Newton –Wavelet which can be defined as a mix between two methods, Newton and wavelet. By applying this algorithm on seven examples and compared the result with the Broyden method it has shown a good efficiency. The new method shows that it can decrease the number of iterations and then decrease the time needed to solve the used equations. This algorithms considered a new technique of mixes between two subjects the first one is a numerical analysis (by using Newton method) and the second is an image processing and data compression (by using Wavelet analysis), The basic aim of this research is decrease the time of solution.

##### On Singular and non Singular Rings

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 111-116

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164040

In this work, we study singular and non singular rings and we give some new basic properties of such rings and its relation with other rings. Finally, we consider rings for which R/Y(R) is regular

##### On the Rings of Differential Operators

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 117-126

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164041

The rings of differential operators have been studied by many mathematicians like Musson [5], Smith and Stafford [7]. Jones in [2] and [3] introduced new ideas for such kind of rings and he found a new line.

In this work, we generalize many of the relations of Jones in the first part, and we found a new proof for some relations of Jones.

##### Efficiency of Artificial Neural Networks (Percepton Network) in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Diseases

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 11-22

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164042

Thyroid gland software which was obtained through research is considered an effective system to diagnosed thyroid gland automatically. This is done by a built complementary database which is flexible and easy at work with data patients concerning those patients under observation at Hazim Al-Hafith Hospital for Oncology & Nuclear Medicine in Mosul. The activity of Thyroid gland software was tested on information about 200 Patients, and information about them was stred in Thyroid database, after that we diagnosed The Thyroid Gland Disease by using an artificial neural network (Perceptron) that is able to recognize Thyroid Gland Disease in good recognized ratio and with a ratio close to the doctor diagnosis depending on (sign & symptoms) which may enables the doctors in depending on it the right diagnosis for the disease.

##### A Study of Self Organizing in Image Recognition Application

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 23-41

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164043

This research focuses on a self-organizing network and the effect of some factors on the network performance by using it for personal photo recognition. The network is built in two types: one dimensional, and two-dimensional network. A study for effect of the types of initial weights on the performance of the network as well, the performance of the network is tested using two types of the initial weights: random weights and fixed weights, which represent the mean of the inputs to the network. The obtained results show that it is preferred to initialize the network with random weights for the one dimensional network while the results were almost equal for the two dimensional network. The research also studies the effects of the neighborhood functions on the performance of the network.

Three neighborhood functions are applied and compared. The experimental results had proved that the second function is the most efficient function among the others. In addition, a study of the network acceptance for the corrupted photos, and the effect of the number of output nodes on the ability of the network recognition. The results show that the density of the weight vectors should be greater than the network to separate the training patterns in the output nodes..** **

##### On an Approximate Solution to Rodriguez Conjecture

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 43-53

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164044

Rickart Theorem ensures the automatic continuity of a dense range homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a strongly Semisimple Banach algebra. Rodriguez conjecture is an extension of Rickart theorem in order to include the nonassociative algebras as follows:

Rodriguez conjecture:Every densely valued homomorphism from a complete normed nonassociative algebra into another one with zero strong radical is continuous.

There is an affirmative answer of Rodriguez conjecture in particular case of power-associative algebra’s. In this work, we give an approximate solution of Rodriguez conjecture:

If A and B are complete normed nonassociative algebras and if f is a dense range homomorphism from A into B such that M(A) (the multiplication algebra of A) is full and B is strongly Semisimple, then f is continuous.

Finally, we give a Gelfand theorem on automatic continuity as a corollary and as an applied example of our approximate solution of Rodriguez conjecture.

##### Design Flash Memory Programmer Device

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 55-83

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164045

The purpose of this research is to design a *flash memory*** programmer device** consisting of a set of Integrated Circuits (ICs) to meet the needs. These circuits have been connected according to operations (defining, reading, programming and erasing) run on the memory chip.

The research also deals with building a program which programs two types of Flash Memory (

**) by using the above mentioned hardware design. The program provides the possibility reading these two types of Flash Memory, Programming and Erasing them. The design of a**

*Multi-purpose and Bulk-Erase***and the following algorithms particular for its programming have led to a complete system regarding the Hardware and Software.**

*Flash Memory Programmer Device*##### Numerical Analysis of Fisher Equation

*AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics*,
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 85-100

DOI:
10.33899/csmj.2006.164046

The Fisher Equation had been solved numerically by using two Methods of Finite Differences Methods. The First is Explicit Scheme Method and the Second is Crank–Nicholson Method. A Comparison had been made between these two methods and we find that the Crank–Nicholson Method converges towards saturation state u=1 faster than the Explicit Scheme Method (Table 1). Also the numerical stability for both Methods had been made, the Explicit Scheme Method is conditionally stable and the condition is , while Crank–Nicholson Method has the condition for step size, but time step is unconditionally stable.