Main Subjects : Communication Networks

Using Approach for Many-to-Many Bi-Directional Video Conferencing

Sameer Jasim Karam; Bikhtiyar Friyad Abdulrahman

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2022.174411

Video conferencing has become a critical need in today’s world due to its importance in education and business to mention a few; also, recent years have witnessed a great revolution in communication technologies. However, there still exist limitations in these technologies in terms of the quality of communication established between two peers. Therefore, many solutions have been suggested for a variety of video conferencing applications. One of these technologies is Web Real-Time Communication technology (WebRTC). WebRTC provides the ability to efficiently perform peer-to-peer communication, which improves the quality of the communication. This work tries to propose a WebRTC bi-directional video conferencing for many-to-many (mesh topology) peers. In this work, signaling was obtained using Library. The performance evaluation of the proposed approach was performed in terms of CPU performance, and Quality of Experience (QoE). Moreover, to validate the simulations results, a real implementation was achieved based on the following scenarios a) involving several peers, b) at the same time, opening several video rooms, c) a session will still be active even when the room initiator leaves, and d) new users can be shared with currently involved participants.

Using The Hybrid GA-Ant Algorithm To Find The Optimal Path In Computer Networks

Ibtisam Kareem Turki

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 121-129
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2022.174416

Cost management is one of the performance standards in computer networks and routing strategies through which we can get effective paths in the computer network, reach the target and perform highly in the network by improving the routing table (jumps). This paper is an attempt to propose a new H design mixed algorithm (ACO-GA) that includes the best features of both ACO and GA with a new application that combines both previous algorithms called( H- Hybrid (ACO-GA) hybrid algorithm technology, which differs in its parameters. In order to research and find the optimal path, the improved ant algorithm was used to explore the network, using smart beams, getting the paths generated by ants and then using them as inputs into the genetic algorithm in the form of arranged pairs of chromosomes.
Experimental results through extensive simulations showed that H (ACO-GA) improves the routing schedule, represented by the pheromone values that ants leave when following their path in the network. The values given in the table( 3.2) vary according to the quality of the pheromone concentration. In this case, it is possible to give the greatest opportunity to choose the best quality according to the concentration of the pheromone. For this purpose, a network consisting of four nodes (1), (2), (3), (4) was used starting with node (1) which is the source node and the destination node (2), by calling the selection technique to update the pheromone table by choosing the path to node (1 ). For this case and for selecting the destination node (2), the pheromone table for the nodes visited by the ant is updated. We calculated the final destination )2) by dividing the ratio. Thus, we get to reduce the search area, speed up search time, and improve the quality of the solution by obtaining the optimum set of paths.

Performance Evaluation of Vehicle Ad hoc Networks Under Wi-Fi-6 Technology

Ahmed Salih Hasan; Basim Mohammed Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 103-109
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2022.174414

Vehicle ad hoc networks are considered mobile networks where the nodes are mobile objects and can change their positions within an environment over time. These objects can be connected at any time according to a predefined strategy. Simulating this kind of network needs high attention to many details. Moreover, the literature lacks works that describe the requirements of simulating such networks. Therefore, this work tries to describe the requirements of simulating vehicle networks (VANETs). Moreover, the goal is to determine what is needed to simulate vehicle networks in terms of the distribution of vehicles, the movement patterns, and the routing protocols used. The simulation results show interesting facts about the VANET networks and the best strategies to minimize the consumption of network resources. Finally, this work considers two communication technologies among network nodes; Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6.

Multilevel Database Security for Android Using Fast Encryption Methods

Najla Badie AI Dabagh; Mahmood S. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 87-96
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2022.174412

Multilevel Security (MLS) is one of the ways that protects the stored information in the computer and mobile devices. It classifies users and information into levels of security; thus, the user can access information within its level or less.
A smartphone is used in managing some of businesses, controlling the home and car devices within the smart city environment by using a set of data stored in the database. The database is used by more than one authorized user some of this data is confidential and important that requires protection from un authorized users.
In this research a proposed system to implement the MLS principle within three levels of security is presented. The first level gives the user its own security level. The second level transfers users through the system parts according to their security level (system administrator or regular user). The third level allows users to manipulate the stored encrypted data in SQLite database by using a simple and quick cryptographic algorithm.
The proposed system is implemented in the smart mobile devices which are supported by the Android operating system. The experimental result showed that the proposed system has the ability to protect the data in the database and prevents users to view the data at upper levels. Also, the inability of users to change the security level of data that prevents the leak of data from the upper security levels to the lower level. Moreover, the proposed system works quickly and needs a little storage space.

Design A Smart Reservation for Parking System

Noora A. Salim; Manar Y. Kashmoola

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 103-113
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.170014

Nowadays, the smartphone device has become the most used device for the convenience of the user, smart parking is one such application that helps the consumer to find car parking space in an urban area. Mosul University, in particular, is one of these places. Common problems are the lack of information about vacant parking spaces and there is no way to search for them online. The goal of this work is to produce an Android and iOS app that uses ultrasonic sensors connected to the Arduino MEGA 2560 microcontroller to send parking occupancy values ​​to cloud, in an online database executed using Google Firebase. Finally, this application can book and pay online.

Remote Farm Monitoring and Irrigation System

Zena N. Faysal; Ghassan J. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 123-138
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.170016

The research deals with the intelligent irrigation system using the Internet of Things (IoT) via Low cost and low power system on chip microcontrollers including integrated Wi-Fi with dual-mode Bluetooth ESP32. The objectives of this project are to investigate the concept of an intelligent irrigation system using the Internet of Things, to develop a system using the aforementioned controller that processes data from the soil sensor that automatically irrigates the plant and analyzes the soil status of the plants. In real-time via the smartphone connected to the Internet. The study scope focuses on cropping and horticulture. Sensors had to be installed for each plant as it was necessary to know the condition of the soil. A water pump must also be added to each plant to save water. This project requires the Blynk application which is a platform with IOS and Android apps to control Arduino, Raspberry Pi and the likes over the Internet. It’s a digital dashboard where you can build a graphic interface for your project by simply dragging and dropping widgets.  Software on smartphone and hardware implementation which can detect environment condition using (DHT22: Temperature and Humidity sensor) sensor and soil moisture sensor. The results of this paper are based on the experiments performed.

Analyzing Crime Networks: A Complex Network-Based Approach

Husam B. Sultan; Basim Mohammed Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 57-73
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168261

This article analyzed the crime network of Nineveh province based on the concepts of Complex Networks. To this end, two networks were created; the first represented the crimes that were committed in Nineveh province, while the second was the network of crime regions. These two networks were visualized and then analyzed using network centrality measurements. The results showed that several pairs of crimes had strong relations to each other. Moreover, it was found that some crime regions were considered as the core of crimes in the province. The results also showed that few regions were considered as the most dangerous parts of the province and they had strong tendencies to replicate their behaviour to other regions. Finally, the authors believe this is the first kind of works that take the crime network of Nineveh province as a case study

Survey on Human Activity Recognition using Smartphone

Adeeba KH; Laheeb M. Ibrahim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 55-67
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168253

The field of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an active research field in which methods are being developed to understand human behavior by interpreting features obtained from various sources, these activities can be recognized using interactive sensors that are affected by human movement. Sensor can embed elements within Smartphones or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). The great increase in smart phone users and the increase in the sensor ability of these smart phones, and users usually carry their smartphones with them. This fact makes HAR more important and accepted.
In this survey, A number of previous studies were studied and analyzed, where we prepared a comparison of the research works conducted over the period 2010-2020 in human activity recognition using Smartphone sensors. Comparison charts highlight their most important aspects such as a type of sensor used, activities, sensor placement, HAR- system type (offline, online), computing device, classifier (type of algorithms) and system accuracy levels.

Hiding Encryption Text by DNA using Exploiting Modification Direction Algorithm

Mohammad S. Hashim; Melad jader saeed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 147-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168266

Local networks and the Internet increase day by day, and a large amount of information is transferred across these networks every day resulting in a dramatic increase in the information security threats.
Therefore, it was necessary to use the techniques that ensure the security and the confidentiality of the transferred information. Secret writing is a general term which is used to refer to the protection of information from attackers, and it includes two types of widely used technologies: cryptography and steganography.
The research has presented a security model that fulfils the requirements of confidentiality and safety of the data transferred between the parties of the communication process. This model includes two phases that aim to provide a high level of confidentiality and security for the secret text. New methods have been used to combine cryptography with steganography to attain a high level of secrecy and security where the secret text was encrypted in an innovative and modified way by encoding DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid( and hiding the resulting encrypted text inside images by means of EMD) Exploiting Modification Direction) method.
This method has been applied on a number of images and texts, and the measurement of PNSR (88.5382, 87.0293, 97.8257), MSE (0.000015, 0.000019, 0.00004), CO (0) and Q-Factor (0.3521,3458,0.3354) values in the resulting hidden images have been yielded good results.

Smart Agriculture; Farm Irrigation System Using IoT

Amera Istiqlal Badran; Manar Y. Kashmoola

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 75-83
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167340

          Due to the increase of development in modern technology which entered in most fields of life including sustainable agriculture; most studies revealed that most lesions result from over irrigation which causes fungi in plant and soil salinity. Recently; some very important terms emerged and changed most agricultural concepts such as the sustainable agriculture, green cities and smart irrigation systems. Most of these systems improved the quality of production and reduced lesions. In this paper a smart irrigation system was designed depending on Field Capacity F.C value, Wilting Point W.P value. In addition to the ranges of moisture that are measured in the field which are important in decision making of irrigation and selecting the best values to rely on such as threshold value in designing for the sake of maintaining moisture in the soil permanently. The best field moisture value was recorded when designing was %24 at threshold value in a clay soil field. Finally; the best types of microcontrollers ESP8266 & ESP-32S and moisture sensors, which are  used to upload the data to Adafruit server. Also, the fast and light Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol, was used to transfer the ranges of moisture through the system and cloud computing.

The Impact of Mobility Models on the Consumption of Network Resources in the Internet of Things (IoT)

Rasha J. Al-Jarah; Basim Mohammed Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 51-69
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167346

Nowadays, the field of Internet of Things (IoT) has become a new trend and one of the most attractive areas of research. It has a wide range of applications; starting from smart devices to developing smart cities. The main issue in this kind of applications is the limitation in network resources (e.g., energy, memory, connectivity, etc.). Most of the works in the literature deal with this issue in a traditional way. For instance, developing routing protocols that find the optimal path for data forwarding. This paper looks to this issue from a different angle. In this work, we aim at testing different mobility patterns and then investigate their impact of the consumption of network resources under particular distributions and data routing protocols. The aspect we aim to investigate and measure is the amount of data exchanged, which in turn affects the power and the memory consumption of a network. We also measure two more aspects; performance stability, and data coverage area. The results show that mobility models play a significant role in the overall network performance.

Collaboration Networks: University of Mosul Case Study

Basim Mohammed Mahmood; Nagham A. Sultan; Karam H. Thanoon; Dhiya Sh. Khadhim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 117-133
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164679

Scientific research is currently considered as one of the key factors in the development of our life. It plays a significant role in managing our business, study, and work in a more flexible and convenient way. The most important aspect when it comes to scientific research is the level of collaboration among scientific researchers. This level should be maximized as much as possible in order to obtain more reliable solutions for our everyday issues. To this end, it is needed to understand the collaboration patterns among researchers and come up with convenient strategies for strengthening the scientific collaboration. The scientific collaboration among the University of Mosul researchers–which is our case in this study–has not yet been investigated or analyzed. In this work, we aim at revealing the patterns of the scientific collaboration of the scientific colleges in the University of Mosul. We generate a co-authorship network for the university; the generated network is based on the data we collected from each individual researcher. The generated co-authorship network reveals many interesting facts regarding the collaboration patterns among the university researchers.