Keywords : image processing

Palm Print Features for Personal Authentication Based On Seven Moments

Khaleda B. Ali; Khalil I. Alsaif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 63-74
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167339

Biometric images are considered as one of the major coefficients in the field of personal authentication. One of the main approaches for personal identification is based on palm print. So studying the features extracted from palm print image adopted to get high efficient system for any recognition systems. In this research two major phases are hold on, in the first phase a database was built for 100 persons by acquiring four images for both hands (4 for left hand and 4 for right hand), then processed to extract ROI (region of interest) by looking for the palm centroid then a square area is fixed based on that centroid. The pre-process play an important step for stable features. Evaluation of the seven moments for each image (8 images) follow the preprocess then stored in the database file (so each person will have 56 values), this phase called personal database preparation. The second phase is the detection phase, which requires the same steps to get 56 values then go through the database looking for the closest person to the tested one. The system evaluation measured by statistical metrics which show good result goes up to 95.7% when applied on 50 persons with different conditions. Also the effect of ROI dimension with individual hands and integrated both of them studied, and the recommended dimension is 192*192.

Arabic Digits Recognition by Using Unified Binary Templates in The Digital Images

Sundus Khaleel Ebraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2018.163571

The process of classification and recognition of the digits is very important and accurate issue, it should depend on a strong, adequate rule, because there are differences in the representation of the digits for various type of font,  rather than to get homogeneous classification for group of digits to show the form or the constant shape for the digit from groups of font , where to be one shape represents each group of the shapes and sizes.
This paper proposed a new method for recognition images of Arabic digits with various types and size of  font which captured by various kind of camera and various resolution depending on the characteristics of each digit which extracted from study of ten types of font with various size for each type. The characteristic of all shapes and sizes extracted for each digit. Then made a constant model for each digit to be compare with the digit image in any size or font type to recognize the digit in the image.
A database of ten templates (one for each digit) built, and these templates are basic and general to recognize the Arabic digits with various font and size. The new method applied for recognition of Arabic digits in the images of license plate of the passenger cars. the recognition percentage was  98%.

Traffic sign recognition by using chain code

Sundus Khaleel Ebraheem; Reham Jassim Al-Atiwi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2012, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 113-126
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163722

The Traffic signs are considered as Traffic Safety tools, Because of their role in the organization of traffic and vehicles to insure the safety of the passengers, pedestrians and the structures of traffic signs are very important devices which help the drivers to drive in safety and adequate manner.
In this research Traffic sign detection  performed in two stages: The first stage include the traffic sign detection and extraction from the road image scene, depending on the color features of the sign, the red color  of the image was taken by using RGB color space system and applying threshold method, in which, for each layer specific threshold was applied. Considering the information of the external shape to recognize the shape geometry type of external frame by using Chain Code. While the second stage include traffic sign classification depending on inner contents of the sign, depending on the number of objects found in the inside part of the sign. Then, the Chain Code was used to recognize the boundary of the inner content of the sign. The research applied on a group of images with (.bmp, .jpg) extensions and with various sizes. The distinction percentage was (99%), the database included 30 images; 15 of them are warning and the other 15 are regulatory.

Image Coding Using EZT Based on Contourlet Transformation

Khalil I. Alsaif; Teba M. Ghaze

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2012, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 59-72
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163671

Due to the fact that most of the application on EZT algorithm were applied on wavelet transformation. In the last ten years, the contourlet transformation shows that its efficiency is higher than the wavelet transformation due to its ability to deal with multidirections instead of the vertical and horizontal directions which are covered by the wavelet transformation.
In this paper, the contourlet coefficient is adopted as inputs to the EZT (which normally are a wavelet coefficient ). Arranging the contourlet coefficient to be studied as input to EZT, the result of adopting modified contourlet coefficient was studied on two parameters (the file size and threshold value ) and tested by evaluating two factors (correlation and MSE).
Comparing the result which we get it with the wavelet technique shows that the contourlet gives a result closer, to the original one depending on the correlation factor plus the PSNR factor. So, the proposed technique can be achieved.  

Compression Image by Using Iterated Function Systems

Basil Y. Al-khayat; Mahasin Thabit Younis

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2012, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 117-133
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2012.163691

This research was in the compression digital images using the iterative function and applied to grayscale images, color images and then re-pressed image decoding. Matlab language is used for programming the system, the proposed algorithms have been applied to a number of images and the results show the efficient and accurate of the proposed algorithms. The method of compressing using iterative function systems methods are from loss compressing methods the advantage of these method by high compressing rate and this was confirmed by the results obtained have been getting a good percentage of the compressing and the quality is good and clear.

Design Educational Bag in Basics of Image Processing

Ghada Mohammad Tahir Qasim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 67-83
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163652

The didactic bags which are programs designed to replace the teacher in a certain scientific field, are the modernist didactic means which proved great activity in the didactic process and due to the importance of the images processing field of computers, so It has been constructed in this paper on designing of didactic bag in the bases of the images processing field which is considered as one of the classification of computer imaging.
The research deals with the images processing in that the idioms. It deals the most famous idioms of images processing. It also treats of some of the images folders shapes. It deals with parts of images processing in detail as well as giving instance to illustrate each of these parts. It deals with the associating process with the parts of the images processing in that digital filtration and mathematical rolling, besides it deals with the special commands in the images processing in some programming languages as Matlab language, c++ language and visual basic language with giving some instances. The paper also contains a show for some internet sites in order to give the opportunity to the user to increase his knowledge and expertise if he wishes to sight the internet sites.

Using Index Light Points to Determine Object Dimensions in the Digital Images

Sundus Khaleel Ebraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 31-46
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163925

Due to the huge development in the digital image processing scope and its wide used in many applications, and exist the needing in some applications such as engineering, military to find remotely the object dimensions and area and in the traffic field to find the height of trucks before the tunnels and intersections bridges and observation the traffic infringements that concerning the load part out of the vehicle body which may be more than the permissible limit.
Therefore, this paper suggest an approach to find the object dimensions by using digital images with an extension. The digital camera was modified by adding two lighting beams to apply point lights on the objet during image capturing. Then by using these two lighted points in the image the scale of the image was found which will be use to find object dimensions.
The proposed method applied by using many images with different objects. It was more efficient and accuracy 100% for determining dimensions of objects. It was applied by using Matlab R2010 ver. 7.0 language, laptop computer with 1.4GHz processor  IntelR CoreTM Solo CPU U3500 , screen resolution 1366*768.

Digital Image Watermarking using Singular Value Decomposition

Sura Ramzi Sheriff

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 187-200
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163922

This paper  presents a digital image watermarking  that  applied theory of linear algebra called “Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)” to digital image watermarking .SVD watermarking scheme, which successfully embeds watermarks into images imperceptible way .SVD method can transform matrix A into product USV .
Watermarking, is the process of embedding data into a multimedia cover , and can be used primarily for copyright protection and other purposes.  Schemes that have recently been proposed modify the pixel values or Transform domain coefficients. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is a practical numerical tool with applications in a number of signal processing fields including image compression. In an SVD-based watermarking scheme, the singular values of the cover image are modified to embed the watermark data. This method has been proposed an optimal SVD-based watermarking scheme that embeds the watermark in two steps. In the first step, the cover image is divided into smaller blocks and a piece of the watermark is embedded in each block. In the second step extracting the watermark  from the watermarked image.  
All tests and experiments are carried out using MATLAB as computing environment and programming language.

A Suggested Point Search Algorithm for Circle Detection in Binary Images

Sundus Khaleel Ebraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 79-94
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2010.163887

Detecting circles is very important in the application of image processing especially in determining the object locations. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for circle detection, called Point Search Circle Detection (PSCD), which detects points and assumes them as inspection points on the circle circumference by using them to create a virtual circle to match it with the original image. Using matching operation leads to reduce computational operations and reduce the complexity and the running time of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm is highly accurate, has high speed and low storage requirements in comparing with other related algorithms. The proposed algorithm can precisely detect circles with various scales, crossed and nested circles in the binary images.
The proposed algorithm was compared with Hough Transform (HT) method for circle detection by using many images with different numbers and radius of circles and different image dimensions. The proposed algorithm was more efficient, where the average ratio of the running time for the proposed algorithm to HT method was 1:646, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm was 100% for circles detection. Both the proposed and HT algorithms are applied by using Matlab 7.2 language, PC equipment with 1.8MHz Pentium IV processor and 512MB RAM.

Enhance Fingerprint Image by Using Genetic Algorithms

Ban Ahmed Mitras; Daliya Abdullah

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 57-73
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163838

In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to enhance fingerprint image which includes in one of its steps a smoothing process in which the suggested genetic algorithms by Mitras and Anwar in 2007 which used  image smooth filters in both spatial and frequency domain will be employed to know their efficiency in enhancing and regaining the damaged sides of the fingerprint image to remove two types of noise, first one deals with noise added to the image, and the second one the noise already found in the image. Then histogram technique is used to enhance the fingerprint image.

Remove Noise from Grayscale Digital Images by Traditional and Fuzzy Filters

Baydaa I. Khalil

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 47-100
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2009.163815

Image denoising and enhancement is an important field and it is used very much in image processing, where images are corrupted by many kinds of noise, therefore, methods and techniques must be used to remove these noises. In this research seven traditional filters are used to remove noise from digital images corrupted with salt&pepper noise and Gaussian noise. And also adopting principle of fuzzy logic to hybrid between traditional filters and fuzzy logic using double bell shaped membership function and also hybrid with double adjusted sigmoid  membership function to create seven fuzzy sigmoidal filters. After applying seven traditional methods, seven fuzzy bell methods and seven fuzzy sigmoidal methods , by using measures of restored image PSNR, MSE, MAE , shows the final methods i.e. seven fuzzy sigmoidal methods are better than other filters i.e. methods that are used in this research after comparing the results.

Encryption Binary Images by Using Template Matching

Sundus Khaleel Ebraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2006, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 43-69
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2006.164058

Text encryption is a very important field in application of data transformation through the digital networks, and the Internet, so it is very necessary to do encryption operation on the text data to get more security in data transformation.
In this paper, we present a method -Template Matching- to encrypt data which is represented in form of image with BMP extension by using Mono Digital Images method with partial compression for the data by using RLE method which increases the security of the method and reduces the file size.
The application results is efficient for the printed or handwritten text in Arabic or English or any other language, and for the maps or sketches images. The method gives a good ability for data encryption. It is suitable for data transformation through the Internet networks.

Comparison of Edge Detection Methods in Gray Images

Sobhi H. Hamdoun; Afzal A. Hassan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2006, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 11-28
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2006.164056

The methods of edge detection play an important role in many image processing applications as edge detection is regarded as an important stage in image processing and the extraction of certain information from it.
Therefore, this subject was the focus of many studies performed by many authors. Many new techniques of edge detection which search into the discontinuity in color intensity of the image leading to the features of the image components were suggested.
Despite of the presence of many methods of edge detection which proved their efficiency in certain fields and gave good results on application, the performance of one method differs from one application to another, thus there was a need to carry out an evaluation of performance for each method to show its efficiency. The aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of edge detection by choosing five methods known as (Canny, Laplacian of Gaussian,Prewitt, Scobel, Roberts) and the application of each method on images with grayscale to find out the performance of each of them and writing down computer programs for each. Also, a subjective evaluation to compare the performance of these five methods using Partt Figure of Merit, calculating the increase percent in the detected edges, decrease percent in the edge points and the correct position of the edge in each method.

Straight Line Detection Using Hough Transform in Grey Images

Khalil Alsaif; Sundus Khaleel Ebraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2006, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2006.164032

In image processing, one of the main difficulties encountered in line detection is due to the various appearances of lines to be detected. This research presents a recognition method for line using Hough Transform (HT) .Applying erosion continuously to reach one pixel width of the generated skeleton for the image. Presented results are illustrating the utility of a new approach to know the content of an image, then store it using it's parameters and reconstruct it without the need to open it.

A Suggested Algorithm for Video Motion and Applicate It to Basketball

Basil Y. Thanoon; Abeer A. Thanoon

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2005, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 101-121
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2005.164091

In this research, we study video motion for movable object within video sequence, and the target is a ball, where video and image processing are combined together. The video files that we have here the Audio Video Interleaves (AVI) type. Here, the video frames have been are read from video file directly, then each frame is processed without the need of frames conversion into separate images. This research includes algorithm suggestion to estimate ball position in each video frame then plotting the ball motion track along the video sequence, by choosing ball initial position and creating ball-rounding window and applying the adaptable threshold to the produced window in order to obtain binary representation window. Recreational process for colors has been made to be used in the following video frame processing, than to find the center of the gravity of the ball for obtaining the predicted object position in the following frame. ActiveX Control is used to display video sequence inside MATLAB6.5 language thorough using Graphical User Interface. Also Root Mean Square Error is adopted as a measure for the adjacent position to the real position of the ball within the video sequence and the position that is found by using algorithm. The experimental results show the efficiency of the suggested algorithm to estimate the ball position accurately.