About Journal

The Al-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics (CSMJ) is an international one which publishes written researches articles in English language in the areas of both computer sciences and mathematics. Contribution is open for researchers of all nationalities. One volume is published each year, and each volume consists of two issues ( June and December).
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The n-Hosoya Polynomials of the Square of a Path and of a Cycle

Ahmed M. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168250

The n-Hosoya polynomial of a connected graph G of order t is defined by:
Hn (G;x) = ∑ Cn (G;x) xk, where, Cn(G,k) is the number of pairs (v,S), in which |S| = n -1, 3 ≤ n ≤ t, v  V(G) ,  S  V (G) , such that dn(v,S) = k , for each 0 ≤ k ≤ δn. In this paper, we find the n-Hosoya polynomial of the square of a path and of the square of a cycle. Also, the n-diameter and n-Wiener index of each of the two graphsare determined

Schultz and Modified Schultz Polynomials for Vertex – Identification Chain and Ring – for Hexagon Graphs

Mahmood M. Abdullah; Ahmed M. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 25-38
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168251

The aim of this paper is to find polynomials related to Schultz, and modified Schultz indices of vertex identification chain and ring for hexagonal rings (6 – cycles). Also to find index and average index of all of them.

Data Modeling and Design Implementation for CouchDB Database

Shaymaa Ahmed Razoqi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168252

In the modern database environment, new non-traditional database types appear that are Not SQL database (NoSQL). This NoSQL database does not rely on the principles of the relational database. Couchdb is one of the NoSQL Document-Oriented databases, in Couchdb the basic element was a document. All types of databases have the same conceptual data model and it was deferent in the logical and physical model, this mean UML class diagram can be used in the  NoSQL design at a conceptual level, that is, it can be used to design a Couchdb database. In this research, we suggest a method to model and implement the conceptual level of the Couchdb database from the UML class diagram in using simple way depending on the association types. Depending on the types of relationships between classes, we can have more than one database model to choose from and find the most suitable for the system to be designed. A medical clinic database was proposed to implement the transfer steps according to the proposed method. Three database models were designed and implemented to study the suitability of the proposed transfer method.

Survey on Human Activity Recognition using Smartphone

Adeeba KH; Laheeb M. Ibrahim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 55-67
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168253

The field of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an active research field in which methods are being developed to understand human behavior by interpreting features obtained from various sources, these activities can be recognized using interactive sensors that are affected by human movement. Sensor can embed elements within Smartphones or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). The great increase in smart phone users and the increase in the sensor ability of these smart phones, and users usually carry their smartphones with them. This fact makes HAR more important and accepted.
In this survey, A number of previous studies were studied and analyzed, where we prepared a comparison of the research works conducted over the period 2010-2020 in human activity recognition using Smartphone sensors. Comparison charts highlight their most important aspects such as a type of sensor used, activities, sensor placement, HAR- system type (offline, online), computing device, classifier (type of algorithms) and system accuracy levels.

Existence and Uniqueness of Positive Solution for Boundary Value Problem of Fractional Differential Equations

Noora L. Housain; Hanan S. Mohammed; Nadia A. Abdulrazaq

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 69-77
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168348

The theory of Banach contraction and the fixed point theorems of Schaefer are used to explain the behavior of positive solutions for the nonlinear differential equation of fractional order and the minimal values. Our main result is the presence and uniqueness of positive solution of the above equations. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results.

Solve Partial Differential Equations using the Banach Contraction Method and Improve Results Using the Trapezoidal Rule

Ahmed E. Ghitheeth; Hiba Sh. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 79-85
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168254

In this paper, the Banach contraction method (BCM) was hybridized with the base of the trapezoid (TR) to solve non-linear partial differential equations. The results obtained from (BCM) were improved by (TR). The results obtained from (BCM -TR) proved the efficiency of this method compared to the default method (BCM). This was done by calculating the mean0square0error (MSE) and estimating the absolute0maximum0error (MAE).

The Basis Number of Symmetric Difference of K2 with Some Ladder Graphs

Ahmed M. Ali; Rasha S. Hasan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168256

The basis number of a graph  G  is  defined to be the least integer  k  such that  G  has  a  k-fold cycle  basis.  We investigate the basis number of symmetric difference of K2 with a ladder graph Lm , acircular ladder, and a Möbius ladder.

Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problem MHD in a Polar Coordinates

Ahmed M.J. Jassim; Ahmed S.J. Amen

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168257

In this paper, we studied a flow of fluid in a pipe under the effect of electromagnetic field in a polar coordinate, be done build a mathematical model which  represented by system of  two dimensional non-linear partial differential equations and we solved it by using  Alternating Directions Implicit method (ADI) which is one of the finite differences method, and from the numerical solution indicated the behavior of  temperature distribution inside the pipe, be done explication the influence of  Rayleigh number and Prandtl number as well as the influence of Eckert number upon the behavior of  temperature distribution are also done through the energy equation  in polar coordinate, we arrived to steady state from unsteady state, we find the behavior of fluid flow inside the pipe  and also we studied the influence of  Hartmann  number  upon the behavior of  fluid flow in pipe and all this done through the motion equation in polar coordinate.

Estimation of Non-Normal Process Capability Indices

Huda Hamed Mohamed Taib; Ban Alani

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 35-56
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168260

The important and common applications of  process capability indices (PCI’s) is the process capability ratio  and the process capability index , and the use of these measures in practical applications is based on the assumption that the process is under statistical control and that the outputs of that process follow the normal distribution. In practice, however, there are many cases in which the outputs of the process are not follow normal distribution, in such cases, calculating PCI’s will lead to misleading results. In this paper, the non-normal production process capability was evaluated. The evaluation process was conducted using four methods: The first method involved the use of Box-Cox power transformation to normal distribution of data and then calculating indicators of the capability process by traditional methods. The second method is by using the weighted variance method, and the third method is by using the Clements’ method based on the percentiles calculation of data, and the fourth method is based on the use of the Darling-Anderson goodness of fit test to accommodate some of the probability distributions of the original data, this test shows that the log-normal distribution is the most appropriate distribution for the data The results showed that although the process is stable and under statistical control, it is not capable based on the value of the process capability  index that did not exceed (65%), as the percentage defect units, which is outside the specifications, is large and located between (3.6%) and (13.4%). The results also showed that there is a convergence in the results of the PCI’s calculated by all methods, and that the Clements’ method is the best method as it gives the highest values ​​for the PCI’s. The research recommended studying and calculating other PCI’s like, , , and CMA(τ,v). One of the recommendations for future research and studies is to do a theoretical study to compare the mentioned methods and choose the best ones based on some statistical criteria.

Analyzing Crime Networks: A Complex Network-Based Approach

Husam B. Sultan; Basim Mohammed Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 57-73
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168261

This article analyzed the crime network of Nineveh province based on the concepts of Complex Networks. To this end, two networks were created; the first represented the crimes that were committed in Nineveh province, while the second was the network of crime regions. These two networks were visualized and then analyzed using network centrality measurements. The results showed that several pairs of crimes had strong relations to each other. Moreover, it was found that some crime regions were considered as the core of crimes in the province. The results also showed that few regions were considered as the most dangerous parts of the province and they had strong tendencies to replicate their behaviour to other regions. Finally, the authors believe this is the first kind of works that take the crime network of Nineveh province as a case study

Study the Relationship between the University Student and Teacher using the Principal Component Analysis and Genetic Algorithms

Sahar E. Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 75-100
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168262

Multivariate data analysis is one of the popular techniques, and among them is the Principal Component Analysis, or PCA, is a dimensionality-reduction method which is the process of converting a large number of related variables to a smaller number of unrelated factors, that still contains most of the information in the large set. Therefore, any phenomenon that consist of a large group of variables that are difficult to treat with in their initial form. The process of the interpreting these variables become complex process, so reducing these variables to a smaller is easier to deal with which is the aspiration of every researcher working in the field of principal component analysis. In this research, a multivariate data collection process was carried out which are relates to the nature of education and the relationship between the university student and the teacher, then studying and analyzing by Principal component analysis model, which is a technique used to summarize and condense data through the use of bonding software SPSS,2020.
Thus, it will be illustrious that this research will fall into a concept Data Mining, and is also abbreviated, and then it is realized using genetic algorithms procedure, in latest version MATLAB 2019B, Application of Genetic Algorithms using simulation software with latest release MATLAB 2019, using the Multiple linear regression equation method.
Multiple linear regression procedure to find the arrangement of independent variables within each factor of the factors obtained, by calculating the weight of the independent variable (Beta). Overall results were obtained for the eigenvalues of the stored correlation matrix, and the study required a Statistical analysis (PCA) method, and by reducing the number of the variables without losing much information about the original variables. The goal is to simplify their understanding. The disclosure of its structure and interpretation, in addition to reaching a set of conclusions that were discussed in detail, In addition to important recommendation.

Comparison Study for Three Compression Techniques (Wavelet, Contourlet and Curvelet Transformation)

Shahad M. Sulaiman; Hadia Saleh Abdullah

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 101-114
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168263

Researches and studies on compressing digital images are aiming to make it easier to deal with networks, communications and Internet by reducing the size of the multimedia files transferred, and reducing the execution time and transmission time. In this research, the lossy compression method was adopted as one of the solutions that reduce the size of the data required to compress the image, through the process of compression of digital image data using Discrete Wavelet Transform algorithms using Haar filter, and Contourlet. Using Laplace and Directional Filter, Curvelet transformation using FDCT- Wrapping Technology .The performance of the algorithms used in the proposed research is also evaluated using a Ratio Compression (RC) scale, As well as the Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) scale, the mean sequence error (MSE) scale, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) scale, and finally, the Normalization correlation (NC) scale. Correspondence between the original image and the recovered image after compression, in order to choose the best algorithm that achieves the best compression ratio of the image and maintains the parameters of the recovered image based on the standards (MSE, PSNR, SNR, COR and CR) used with the three algorithms, and the results showed that the Curvelet transformation algorithm achieved : best compression ratio, but at the expense of image quality.

Using Ant Algorithm to Find the Optimal Critical Path of a Projects Network

Ziyad A. Mohammed; Sama T. Al_Obaidy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 115-130
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168264

Intelligent techniques to solve the problem of decision-making in project management, apart from the methods of operations research, the choice was made on one of the algorithms of crowd intelligence represented by the Ant Colony Optimization  algorithm (ACO)to solve the matter of finding the optimal critical path for the enterprise business network because the business network is more Networks tradition the behavior of the ant colony system to find the optimal critical path for the Critical Path Network(CPN) as. You own a project beginning contract (the first event) equivalent to an ant hill.The project end contract (the last event) is equivalent to the food site.The matter of finding the optimal critical path for the project is equivalent to the search process to find an optimal (the shortest) path between the nest and the food site.
The program ANTOCPN, written in Matlab language on a virtual business network. The program is featuring by its efficiency, accuracy of results, and the possibility of applying it to any business network, regard of the degree of complexity in terms of the number of paths (activities), whether real or imaginary, smoothly and easily. Also, the results of the ANTOCPN algorithm program were compared with the results of the genetic algorithm program for the same question GAOCPN for previous research, and the ant algorithm proved its worth in terms of speed in obtaining the optimal solution.

A Multimedia Medical Expert System for Human Diseases Diagnosis

Ahmed Kh. Ameen; Baydaa Ibraheem Khaleel

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 131-146
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168265

With the great expansion and development of computer science and its systems. Its applications are used in most areas of life, which facilitated the solution of many simple and complex issues, as it was used in multiple fields, including the medical field, where computer applications were designed to help the specialist doctor in his work and reduce the time in diagnosis. In this research, an expert system is built, which is one of the artificial intelligence techniques, using the advanced (forward) sequencing algorithms also called data-directed inference, and the algorithm. Backward (backward) sequence, also called target-directed inference, to diagnose the most common diseases to which a person is exposed. It is supported by multimedia, which includes (text, images, audio, and video) to reach a solution to the problem through dialogue with the user and rely on the stored knowledge as a base on which the inference engine represented by the two algorithms to reach to solutions, instructions and recommendations to diagnose the disease and give the appropriate treatment. These solutions are given to users in several forms using multimedia (text, pictures, audio and video) and this system is used by people who cannot reach a doctor or hospital for any reason. This system consists of major parts, which are the knowledge base that organizes the collection of facts the laws and the inference engine, which in turn include the Forward Chaining and Backward Chaining algorithms.
These diseases in order to reach a diagnosis of the disease with high accuracy, and this leads to reducing medical errors. The proposed system can be used as a substitute for the doctor in diagnosing some diseases in general and some diseases in particular. Which is useful in cases where the doctor is absent due to natural conditions or emergency situations, or when it is difficult for the patient to reach hospitals or health centers.

Hiding Encryption Text by DNA using Exploiting Modification Direction Algorithm

Mohammad S. Hashim; Melad jader saeed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 147-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168266

Local networks and the Internet increase day by day, and a large amount of information is transferred across these networks every day resulting in a dramatic increase in the information security threats.
Therefore, it was necessary to use the techniques that ensure the security and the confidentiality of the transferred information. Secret writing is a general term which is used to refer to the protection of information from attackers, and it includes two types of widely used technologies: cryptography and steganography.
The research has presented a security model that fulfils the requirements of confidentiality and safety of the data transferred between the parties of the communication process. This model includes two phases that aim to provide a high level of confidentiality and security for the secret text. New methods have been used to combine cryptography with steganography to attain a high level of secrecy and security where the secret text was encrypted in an innovative and modified way by encoding DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid( and hiding the resulting encrypted text inside images by means of EMD) Exploiting Modification Direction) method.
This method has been applied on a number of images and texts, and the measurement of PNSR (88.5382, 87.0293, 97.8257), MSE (0.000015, 0.000019, 0.00004), CO (0) and Q-Factor (0.3521,3458,0.3354) values in the resulting hidden images have been yielded good results.

Designing an Electronic Platform for the Distribution and Managing Undergraduate Projects

Osama O. Mohammed; Shayma Mustafa Mohi-Aldeen

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 159-177
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168267

Our study in this research came as a proposal for an electronic platform to manage projects that graduate the fourth stage through which all tasks were transferred from the traditional system to an electronic system. As the system collects project proposals by the teachers and follows up the process of selecting them by the students, then managing the discussion process and sending the evaluation electronically by the members of the discussion committees and by connecting to the internal network (Router) via mobile or computer to the main database so that the system administrator prints the results The evaluation is processed electronically and submitted to the examination committee. The system was developed structurally according to the principle of the server and the client, and the wireless network was used to connect the system devices to transfer information between the server and the client. The system provided a protection method for system information and a way for users to enter, relying on efficient investigation methods to ensure safe access to all system interfaces. The system was tested on real information for the Computer Science Department, and the system showed its efficiency in achieving the required goals, completing the tasks, and issuing results accurately, quickly and without errors. Programming languages used in the design (C # for design interfaces + SQL Server for distributed database + PHP for web pages)

Electronic System for Managing Theses of Computer Science College

Dhafar H. Al-Ali; Auday Hashim Saeed Al Wattar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 179-195
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168268

This research paper includes designing and implementing of an Electronic system for  managing theses of  College of Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Mosul, using replication, C # language and MS SQL Server 2008 databases to be a stable work basis that can be relied upon in the departments’ work as it facilitates the higher administrative bodies in the departments and the deanship Obtaining the required results quickly and accurately, which facilitates and contributes to making the right decisions at the appropriate time and required with the ease of preparing special reports for each student, lecturer and thesis and printing them which it will help the departments head and the scientific committee to complete them if requested, as well as provide various statistics, and to improve administrative efficiency for thesis, the problem of losing thesis data and preserving it from human and natural disasters has been overcome by applying the principle of replication.

Study on Turning Arabic Text into Spoken Words

Abdulwahhab F. Shareef; Riyadh Z. Mahmoud

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 197-209
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2021.168269

Language was a means of communication between members of a single community, so that some of them would express to each other their ideas and thoughts, and a common characteristic of that society was defined, and the origin of the word was derived from (rhetoric, idle), if he repealed the matter and spoke about it, and the ancients knew it that language: (It is what expresses It contains all the people for their belongings). The ancients went in their definition of a language to the characteristics of their language with which they communicate, without referring to the Arabic language as a language among the living languages ​​that are circulating among them. Arabs and Arabs (whoever inhabited the country and its island, or uttered the language of its people), and to it returns the percentage of the Arabic language, which is one of the Semitic languages. Which spread in the Arabian Peninsula, and the writing came to denote what is in the minds of notables.
This research presents a computer application that depends on human input to pronounce the Arabic letters
The system consists of two phases, the first stage is the axis of creating a database for Arabic language characters and their storage locations, as well as the type of formulas for those letters when the initial processing was performed.
The second stage is the process of comparing the entered letter from the text with the corresponding sound and placing it in a storage so that we can then process it. In the practical part of the research, we used a comparison between the results of four methods to obtain the least possible execution time with the least pauses in speech, which are the combinative method, the smoothing method, the method of nesting speech, and a hybrid method between smoothing and interfering together.
We start by entering in the input text box and using the SpellLetter function, which we use for the purpose of processing and pronunciation, where the input is of three types, either it is a char, or it is an array of characters (String), or it is numbers between zero and nine Num), and in the case that the entry was not For these three types, the entry is wrong, for example, non-Arabic letters or special symbols, for example.,And if the entry was correct, each letter is taken with its accent. This means that we take two positions each time.
Using Matlab (R 2018a) to build the proposed system and it was implemented using a computer. Portable running under the environment of the operating system (Microsoft Windows 10).

Waves and Ripples in Liquid Films

Joseph G. Abdulahad; Abdulrahman M. Morshed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2004, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 187-198
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2004.8153

In this paper we present a mathematical model for two- dimensional incompressible flow in a symmetric thin liquid films with the viscosity forces, which can be very small, compared with surface tension and inertia forces. We obtain the governing differential equation for such flow, we also determine the solution of equations and also we consider an inviscid waves in thin films.

A Geometric Construction of a (56,2)-Blocking Set in PG(2,19) and on Three Dimensional Linear [325,3,307]_19Griesmer Code

Nada Kasm Yahya; Zyiad Adrees Hamad Youines

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.163511

In this paper we give a geometrical construction of a ( 56, 2)-blocking set in PG( 2, 19) and We obtain a new (325,18)- arc and a new linear code and apply the Grismer rule so that we prove it an optimal or non-optimal code, giving some examples of field 19 arcs Theorem (2.1).

Information Hiding Based on Chan-Vese Algorithm

Samia Sh. Lazar; Nadia M. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 99-110
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.7876

The process of data transfer via the Internet becomes an easy process as a result of the great advances in networking technologies, and now many people can communicate with each other easily and quickly through them.Because the online environment is general and open, the unauthorized one can control information were transmitted between any two parts and interception of getting access for it, because of that there is an emergency need for write covered, which is the science of hiding secret information in a digital cover such as an images, so it is impossible for the normal person and others unauthorized to detected or perceives. In this paper, the technology in the field of information hiding in the images is developed, where first, the cover (PNG, BMP) image is segmented using Chan-Vese algorithm, then the text will hide in the segmented image depending on the areas of clipping.The standards (PSNR, BER) are used to measure technical efficiency. In addition the algorithm of this technique is implemented in Matlab.

Medical Image Classification Using Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Sami H. Ismael; Shahab W. Kareem; Firas H. Almukhtar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 135-147
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164682

The different types of white blood cells equips us an important data for diagnosing and identifying of many diseases. The automation of this task can save time and avoid errors in the identification process. In this paper, we explore whether using shape features of nucleus is sufficient to classify white blood cells or not. According to this, an automatic system is implemented that is able to identify and analyze White Blood Cells (WBCs) into five categories (Basophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, and Neutrophil). Four steps are required for such a system; the first step represents the segmentation of the cell images and the second step involves the scanning of each segmented image to prepare its dataset. Extracting the shapes and textures from scanned image are performed in the third step. Finally, different machine learning algorithms such as (K* classifier, Additive Regression, Bagging, Input Mapped Classifier, or Decision Table) is separately applied to the extracted (shapes and textures) to obtain the results. Each algorithm results are compared to select the best one according to different criteria’s.

Build a Real-Time Home Security Alarm System Using a Kinect Sensor

Zaid A. Mundher; Khalida Basheer; Safaa Ayad Najeeb; Rami Zuhair

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.163512

Surveillance camera systems have been widely used in homes, businesses and other places of work. These systems with its all capabilities and features provide protection to people who uses them.  In this work, a home security alarm system was designed and implemented based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor. The introduced system can detect intrusion and respond to it in real-time. If the intrusion is detected, the system sends SMS as a notification to the authorized user. Moreover, as soon as the intrusion is detected, pictures will be taken using the RGB camera of the Kinect. These pictures will be sent to the authorized user via email, and saved on the local drive. Simultaneously, the proposed system emits a loud sound to frighten away intruders. The proposed system could be used in homes, offices, warehouses, banks, hospitals, etc..

Studying the Bessell Equation of Complex Order

Thair Y. Thanoon; Omar Thaher shalal

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.163517

In this paper we derive Bessel equation of complex order (n + i), after that generalized recurrence relations from Bessel equation of order (n) to Bessel equation of complex order (n + i) and will satisfy that. We given illustrates example of different cases .

Representation of a Distributed Database System for the Medical Purposes Using Oracle

Basam A. Mustafa; Ahmed A. Al-Saman

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 173-187
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163493

This research concerned with the designing and implementation of a distributed database system for the medical purposes. The system has been applied on dental clinic unit and statistics department at Al-Khansaa Educational Hospital at Mosul, and dental clinic unit at Woman Health Care Center at Mosul as a case study.
Client/server model has been used to implement the proposed system's architecture. The computers have been connected together through a local area network (LAN). Horizontal fragmentation technique has been used to distribute the database which achieved a good level of local autonomy. Oracle software were used and utilized to implement the system. It played a dramatic role in protecting data using combination of passwords and user roles hierarchies in addition to achieving transparency and data integrity concepts in the system. The proposed system simplified saving and retrieving data of dental clinics. It also provides dental clinics units  and statistics department with necessary reports and statistics. The proposed system has the ability to automatically perform daily backup for the database in addition to the manual options for database backup and recovery.

Applying Classical and Intelligence Techniques for Digital Image Contrast Enhancement

Alyaa taqi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2008, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 135-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2008.163990

Modern digital camera technology has produced huge services for the users from different ages and specifications .It made it easer to have images, but the user still needs to enhance those images, which have some problems when taken by the camera, for not applying enough light, as taking it in cloudy weather or on bright light or dark area or taking it from a far distance, all these reasons make the picture not clear having ambiguous details and colors. So, through this research we used some image contrast enhancement techniques to adjust the light for dark images, to make them have deep detail, sharp edges and better quality. Contrast problem is one of the most problems that face those who work on research field or normal users.
            The aim of this research is to improve the contrast of images that have bad contrast using both classical techniques and intelligence techniques. Among intelligence techniques we chose the fuzzy logic methods, to have images contain better colors all over the image and make the images look brighter. By studying the classical and fuzzy logic methods, we proposed a method named (Fuzzy Hyperbolic Threshold), the proposed method gave very good results. We applied the methods on gray, colored images and on a video, and used (Matlab 7) to implement those methods.

Evaluation of Clustering Validity

Rudhwan Yousif Sideek; Ghaydaa A.A. Al-Talib

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2008, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 79-97
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2008.163987

Clustering is a mostly unsupervised procedure and the majority of the clustering algorithms depend on certain assumptions in order to define the subgroups present in a data set. As a consequence, in most applications the resulting clustering scheme requires some sort of evaluation as regards its validity.
            In this paper, we present a clustering validity procedure, which evaluates the results of clustering algorithms on data sets. We define a validity indexes, S_Dbw & SD, based on well-defined clustering criteria enabling the selection of the optimal input parameters values for a clustering algorithm that result in the best partitioning of a data set.
            We evaluate the reliability of our indexes experimentally, considering clustering algorithm (K_Means) on real data sets.
Our approach is performed favorably in finding the correct number of clusters fitting a data set.

Parallel Gaussian Elimination Method

Muhammad W. Muhammad Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2008, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 59-77
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2008.163986

The aim of the project is to develop parallel approaches for Gaussian Elimination Methods that are used in linear programming  to solve linear module  systems.
            Most of these models are time-consuming when executed and processed in the sequential microprocessor computers. During the project, we try to decrease this time and increase the efficiency of the algorithm for the Gaussian Elimination Method, through developing parallel methods appropriate to be executed on MIMD type computers.
            In this paper, three algorithms were suggested for paralleling a developed algorithm of Gaussian Elimination Method and a comparison was made between the three algorithms and the original.
            As we have been able to accelerate the three parallel methods and the speedup was one of the following:
          Speedup =  ,  no. of processor is (50)
            In general, the practical results and the suggested programs for these new algorithms proved to be better in performance than their analogues that are executed in computers of sequential processor in view of the two elements of execution time and algorithm time.

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  rafjcomath@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Raida Dawood Mahmood

Managing Editor: Assistant Professor Dr. Ahmed Mohammed Ali

Print ISSN: 1815-4816

Online ISSN: 2311-7990

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