About Journal

The Al-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics (CSMJ) is an international one which publishes written researches articles in English language in the areas of both computer sciences and mathematics. Contribution is open for researchers of all nationalities. One volume is published each year, and each volume consists of two issues ( June and December).
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Some Properties of Algebra of Quotients with Bounded Evaluation of a Norm Ideal on Complex Banach Space

Mohammed Th. Al-Neima; Amir A. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167335

Cabrera-Mohammed proved that the imbedding of a norm ideal on Hilbert space in algebra of quotients with bounded evaluation is continuous with other properties. In this paper we improve this result by using complex Banach space instated of Hilbert space.
 

ii- Open Set in Bitopological Spaces

Beyda S. Abdullah; Amir A. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167336

     In this paper, we define ii-open set in bitopological space as follows: Let ( ,  , ) be a bitopological space, a subset A of  is   said to be ( – ii- open set )  if there exist  U,V ≠ and    U,V    such that:

A=int1(U)                          or            A=int2 (V)
A                 or      A

      We study some characterizations and properties of this class.  Also, we explain the relation between ii- open sets and open sets, i-open sets and α-open sets in bitopological space. Furthermore, we define ii- continuous mapping on bitopological spaces with some properties.
 

Hosoya Polynomial, Wiener Index, Coloring and Planar of Annihilator Graph of Zn

Mohammed S. Ahmed; Akram Mohammed; Nabeel E. Arif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 41-52
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167337

Let R be a commutative ring with identity. We consider ΓB(R) an annihilator graph of the commutative ring R. In this paper, we find Hosoya polynomial, Wiener index, Coloring, and Planar annihilator graph of Zn denote ΓB(Zn) , with n= pm or n=pmq, where p, q are distinct prime numbers and m is an integer with m ≥ 1 .
 

Improving Performance of Projector with the Protection of the Eyes while using a Smart Board

Abdulrafa H. Maree

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167338

One of the most important problems that a teacher faces when using a smart board in the teaching process is the fall of a strong light beam from the projector on their faces and bodies. The focus of this light is harmful to the human eye, which leads to temporary blindness when it falls directly on the eye. It also leads to harmful side effects. The light falling on the presenter body will make the picture on the screen looks unprofessional and unclear and distract the attention of the students. Solving this problem will led to better lectures delivering for both the teachers and the student.
In this study, a system is designed to track the movement of the teacher using an infrared transmitter that is attached to the teacher’s freshness or head cap. Electronic signals directed to an infrared receiver are installed on the front of the projector device in order to send these signals to the computer for analysis according to the proposed algorithms to determine the teacher face position. A black shade square) is placed in the designated and displayed on the smart board where the lighting will decrease on the face and eyes of the teacher, as this shade will be moving with the movement of the transmitter. This method aims to protect the teacher’s eyes from the harmful strong light.
 

Palm Print Features for Personal Authentication Based On Seven Moments

Khaleda B. Ali; Khalil I. Alsaif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 63-74
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167339

Biometric images are considered as one of the major coefficients in the field of personal authentication. One of the main approaches for personal identification is based on palm print. So studying the features extracted from palm print image adopted to get high efficient system for any recognition systems. In this research two major phases are hold on, in the first phase a database was built for 100 persons by acquiring four images for both hands (4 for left hand and 4 for right hand), then processed to extract ROI (region of interest) by looking for the palm centroid then a square area is fixed based on that centroid. The pre-process play an important step for stable features. Evaluation of the seven moments for each image (8 images) follow the preprocess then stored in the database file (so each person will have 56 values), this phase called personal database preparation. The second phase is the detection phase, which requires the same steps to get 56 values then go through the database looking for the closest person to the tested one. The system evaluation measured by statistical metrics which show good result goes up to 95.7% when applied on 50 persons with different conditions. Also the effect of ROI dimension with individual hands and integrated both of them studied, and the recommended dimension is 192*192.

Smart Agriculture; Farm Irrigation System Using IoT

Amera Istiqlal Badran; Manar Y. Kashmoola

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 75-83
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167340

          Due to the increase of development in modern technology which entered in most fields of life including sustainable agriculture; most studies revealed that most lesions result from over irrigation which causes fungi in plant and soil salinity. Recently; some very important terms emerged and changed most agricultural concepts such as the sustainable agriculture, green cities and smart irrigation systems. Most of these systems improved the quality of production and reduced lesions. In this paper a smart irrigation system was designed depending on Field Capacity F.C value, Wilting Point W.P value. In addition to the ranges of moisture that are measured in the field which are important in decision making of irrigation and selecting the best values to rely on such as threshold value in designing for the sake of maintaining moisture in the soil permanently. The best field moisture value was recorded when designing was %24 at threshold value in a clay soil field. Finally; the best types of microcontrollers ESP8266 & ESP-32S and moisture sensors, which are  used to upload the data to Adafruit server. Also, the fast and light Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol, was used to transfer the ranges of moisture through the system and cloud computing.
 

Nineveh Blood: Android Based Blood Donation Application for Nineveh Governorate in Iraq

Ahmed Mostfa; Aya A. Alabass; Abdel-Nasser Sharkawy

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 85-96
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167341

Blood donation (BD) is one of the most significant contributions that a person can make towards the society. The growing android technology has made the process of BD easier and hassle-free. The Nineveh blood bank is an android application made for such great and noble cause. The application connects the givers and the requesters of blood who live in the Nineveh province, Iraq. The blood requester can serach from a list of all donors who have the same blood group and directly contact them without any third-party involvement. The Nineveh Blood application creates giver’s/requester’s profile through the Google Firebase Real-time database. In which, a one WebSocket two-way channel can constantly send the data back-and-forth between the server and the clients, and store the data as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file.  
 

Maintainability Prediction for Object-Oriented Software Systems Based on Intelligent Techniques: Literature Review

anfal abd fadhil; Taghreed Riyadh Alreffaee

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 97-111
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167342

The maintainability of the software is one of the most substantial aspects when assessing software product quality. It is known as the easiness with which the current software can be changed. In the literature, a great number of models have been suggested to predict and measure maintainability during various stages of the Software Development Life Cycle, to conduct a comparative study of the existing suggested models of the prediction, only few attempts have been done. This study hints at the basics about the manner of how to measure maintainability in the object-oriented (OO) design knowing that the maintainability will be measured differently at every level. Also, we will concentrate on the artificial intelligence technologies of these studies.
 

The Linguistic Connotations of the Word Light in the Holy Quran (An analytical study of Quranic verses using Artificial intelligent techniques)

Nima A. Al-Fakhry

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167343

The Holy Quran is a sea of words, articulations, phrases, regulations, laws, and judgments. Therefore, when we dive in the Quran verses we need a large amount of information in various aspects to achieve the required knowledge. The word (Al-Noor) is one of the Quran's vocabularies, which enjoys a special place, and this privacy came from the specificity of the Quran and its sanctity. The word (Al-Noor) has one pronunciation and many meanings and vocabulary.
The research has sought to know God's lights: “the science, the guidance, the kernels, and faith “the closest and most intense and congregated of the verse (35/Al-Noor).  Furthermore, this verse was chosen due to it speaks about the Sultan of Allah Almighty and god's light. Finally, the research has used the algorithm of “subtractive clustering and weighted subtractive clustering” measured and Matlab language (2013) to achieve the practical aspect of the study.
 

Classification of the Financial Reality of the National Insurance Company for the Period (2008-2015) Using Cluster Analysis

Wafaa A. Ashour; Wafaa A. Sultan

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 25-37
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167344

This study aimed to use the cluster analysis to find the difference in the level of financial indicators of the National Insurance Company for the period (2008-2015) and to determine which financial indicators contributed significantly to this difference in the financial position of the company during the period under study. A cluster analysis method was used, represented by the hierarchical method (single link) and the method of averages (k-means). Where was concluded that the year (2008) had a low financial position for the company, while the year (2015) had an increase in the financial position of the company. And that the most important indicators that were the reason for the decline in the financial situation in the years (2008 and 2009) is the percentage of the company's contribution in other companies, while the rate of expenses and the rate of growth of the life insurance portfolio and the percentage of the company's contribution in other companies' were the most important factors that led to improvement The financial position of the company in the period (2010-2012) compared to previous years.

A Comparative Study of Methods for Separating Audio Signals

Riham J. Issa; Yusra Mohammad

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167345

The process of separating signal from a mixture of signals represents an essential task for many applications including sound signal processing and speech processing systems as well as medical signal processing. In this paper, a review of sound source separation problem has been presented, as well as the methods used to extract features from the audio signal, also, we define the Blind source separation problem and comparing between some of the methods used to solve the problem of source separation.
 

The Impact of Mobility Models on the Consumption of Network Resources in the Internet of Things (IoT)

Rasha J. Al-Jarah; Basim Mohammed Mahmood

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 51-69
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167346

Nowadays, the field of Internet of Things (IoT) has become a new trend and one of the most attractive areas of research. It has a wide range of applications; starting from smart devices to developing smart cities. The main issue in this kind of applications is the limitation in network resources (e.g., energy, memory, connectivity, etc.). Most of the works in the literature deal with this issue in a traditional way. For instance, developing routing protocols that find the optimal path for data forwarding. This paper looks to this issue from a different angle. In this work, we aim at testing different mobility patterns and then investigate their impact of the consumption of network resources under particular distributions and data routing protocols. The aspect we aim to investigate and measure is the amount of data exchanged, which in turn affects the power and the memory consumption of a network. We also measure two more aspects; performance stability, and data coverage area. The results show that mobility models play a significant role in the overall network performance.
 

Statistical Analysis of the Quality of Date Production for 2019 in Iraq

Nadia A. Ayed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 71-83
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.167347

Dates are a great food that meets many human needs, and the government should encourage and intensify efforts to support the expansion of palm cultivation and development and focus on its production in our country as a means of food security in the future. In addition, palm trees have an important economic role in improving the country's economy. In this paper, a sharp decline in the quality of production will be highlighted. So, the aim of the study is to know the most important types of palm trees that affect the production of tigers for the year 2019 if the study includes 11 governorates, and the multiple linear regression method has been applied in selecting the most important types affecting the production.. and the types of palm trees did not appear Halawi and Khattawi and Khadari any effect on Dates production in the aforementioned year, although these types are considered to be one of the desirable first-class varieties in the Iraqi market, and for export in particular, in a manner that supports the country's economy.
 

Waves and Ripples in Liquid Films

Joseph G. Abdulahad; Abdulrahman M. Morshed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2004, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 187-198
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2004.8153

In this paper we present a mathematical model for two- dimensional incompressible flow in a symmetric thin liquid films with the viscosity forces, which can be very small, compared with surface tension and inertia forces. We obtain the governing differential equation for such flow, we also determine the solution of equations and also we consider an inviscid waves in thin films.

Build a Real-Time Home Security Alarm System Using a Kinect Sensor

Zaid A. Mundher; Khalida Basheer; Safaa Ayad Najeeb; Rami Zuhair

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.163512

Surveillance camera systems have been widely used in homes, businesses and other places of work. These systems with its all capabilities and features provide protection to people who uses them.  In this work, a home security alarm system was designed and implemented based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor. The introduced system can detect intrusion and respond to it in real-time. If the intrusion is detected, the system sends SMS as a notification to the authorized user. Moreover, as soon as the intrusion is detected, pictures will be taken using the RGB camera of the Kinect. These pictures will be sent to the authorized user via email, and saved on the local drive. Simultaneously, the proposed system emits a loud sound to frighten away intruders. The proposed system could be used in homes, offices, warehouses, banks, hospitals, etc..
 
 

Information Hiding Based on Chan-Vese Algorithm

Samia Sh. Lazar; Nadia M. Mohammed

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 99-110
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.7876

The process of data transfer via the Internet becomes an easy process as a result of the great advances in networking technologies, and now many people can communicate with each other easily and quickly through them.Because the online environment is general and open, the unauthorized one can control information were transmitted between any two parts and interception of getting access for it, because of that there is an emergency need for write covered, which is the science of hiding secret information in a digital cover such as an images, so it is impossible for the normal person and others unauthorized to detected or perceives. In this paper, the technology in the field of information hiding in the images is developed, where first, the cover (PNG, BMP) image is segmented using Chan-Vese algorithm, then the text will hide in the segmented image depending on the areas of clipping.The standards (PSNR, BER) are used to measure technical efficiency. In addition the algorithm of this technique is implemented in Matlab.

A Geometric Construction of a (56,2)-Blocking Set in PG(2,19) and on Three Dimensional Linear [325,3,307]_19Griesmer Code

Nada Kasm Yahya; Zyiad Adrees Hamad Youines

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.163511

In this paper we give a geometrical construction of a ( 56, 2)-blocking set in PG( 2, 19) and We obtain a new (325,18)- arc and a new linear code and apply the Grismer rule so that we prove it an optimal or non-optimal code, giving some examples of field 19 arcs Theorem (2.1).

Medical Image Classification Using Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Sami H. Ismael; Shahab W. Kareem; Firas H. Almukhtar

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 135-147
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.164682

The different types of white blood cells equips us an important data for diagnosing and identifying of many diseases. The automation of this task can save time and avoid errors in the identification process. In this paper, we explore whether using shape features of nucleus is sufficient to classify white blood cells or not. According to this, an automatic system is implemented that is able to identify and analyze White Blood Cells (WBCs) into five categories (Basophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, and Neutrophil). Four steps are required for such a system; the first step represents the segmentation of the cell images and the second step involves the scanning of each segmented image to prepare its dataset. Extracting the shapes and textures from scanned image are performed in the third step. Finally, different machine learning algorithms such as (K* classifier, Additive Regression, Bagging, Input Mapped Classifier, or Decision Table) is separately applied to the extracted (shapes and textures) to obtain the results. Each algorithm results are compared to select the best one according to different criteria’s.
 

Studying the Bessell Equation of Complex Order

Thair Y. Thanoon; Omar Thaher shalal

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2020.163517

In this paper we derive Bessel equation of complex order (n + i), after that generalized recurrence relations from Bessel equation of order (n) to Bessel equation of complex order (n + i) and will satisfy that. We given illustrates example of different cases .
 

Evaluation of Clustering Validity

Rudhwan Yousif Sideek; Ghaydaa A.A. Al-Talib

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2008, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 79-97
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2008.163987

Clustering is a mostly unsupervised procedure and the majority of the clustering algorithms depend on certain assumptions in order to define the subgroups present in a data set. As a consequence, in most applications the resulting clustering scheme requires some sort of evaluation as regards its validity.
            In this paper, we present a clustering validity procedure, which evaluates the results of clustering algorithms on data sets. We define a validity indexes, S_Dbw & SD, based on well-defined clustering criteria enabling the selection of the optimal input parameters values for a clustering algorithm that result in the best partitioning of a data set.
            We evaluate the reliability of our indexes experimentally, considering clustering algorithm (K_Means) on real data sets.
Our approach is performed favorably in finding the correct number of clusters fitting a data set.
 

Representation of a Distributed Database System for the Medical Purposes Using Oracle

Basam A. Mustafa; Ahmed A. Al-Saman

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2013, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 173-187
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2013.163493

This research concerned with the designing and implementation of a distributed database system for the medical purposes. The system has been applied on dental clinic unit and statistics department at Al-Khansaa Educational Hospital at Mosul, and dental clinic unit at Woman Health Care Center at Mosul as a case study.
Client/server model has been used to implement the proposed system's architecture. The computers have been connected together through a local area network (LAN). Horizontal fragmentation technique has been used to distribute the database which achieved a good level of local autonomy. Oracle software were used and utilized to implement the system. It played a dramatic role in protecting data using combination of passwords and user roles hierarchies in addition to achieving transparency and data integrity concepts in the system. The proposed system simplified saving and retrieving data of dental clinics. It also provides dental clinics units  and statistics department with necessary reports and statistics. The proposed system has the ability to automatically perform daily backup for the database in addition to the manual options for database backup and recovery.
 

Applying Classical and Intelligence Techniques for Digital Image Contrast Enhancement

Alyaa taqi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2008, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 135-158
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2008.163990

Modern digital camera technology has produced huge services for the users from different ages and specifications .It made it easer to have images, but the user still needs to enhance those images, which have some problems when taken by the camera, for not applying enough light, as taking it in cloudy weather or on bright light or dark area or taking it from a far distance, all these reasons make the picture not clear having ambiguous details and colors. So, through this research we used some image contrast enhancement techniques to adjust the light for dark images, to make them have deep detail, sharp edges and better quality. Contrast problem is one of the most problems that face those who work on research field or normal users.
            The aim of this research is to improve the contrast of images that have bad contrast using both classical techniques and intelligence techniques. Among intelligence techniques we chose the fuzzy logic methods, to have images contain better colors all over the image and make the images look brighter. By studying the classical and fuzzy logic methods, we proposed a method named (Fuzzy Hyperbolic Threshold), the proposed method gave very good results. We applied the methods on gray, colored images and on a video, and used (Matlab 7) to implement those methods.
 

Design a Software Engineering CASE Tool (ERToOracle10g) to transform a graphical Entity Relationship model (ER model) to Oracle10g

Nada N. Saleem; Saad Ahmed Th.

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, 2011, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 169-180
DOI: 10.33899/csmj.2011.163658

CASE Tools play a significant role in the field of software engineering development processes where they are utilized in system modeling and analysis, in system design and in generating automatic software codes based on system design models.
In this research the (ERToOracle10g) tool has been designed and implemented as a CASE Tool. Hence it is used to construct a data modeling using ER Model, then transforming the graphical model to (Oracle 10g) SQL instructions and executing it automatically inside an (Oracle 10g) server. XML has been used  to transform graphical ER model to SQL instructions. The graphical ER model includes symbols and shapes that are difficult to analyze or to directly generate SQL instructions. The graphical model is transformed to descriptive text using XML which is easy to analyze and transform to SQL instructions.
 

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  rafjcomath@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Raida Dawood Mahmood

Managing Editor: Assistant Professor Dr. Ahmed Mohammed Ali

Print ISSN: 1815-4816

Online ISSN: 2311-7990

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