About Journal

Aims and Scopes: The Al-Rafidain Journal is an international one which publishes written researches articles in English or Arabic in the areas of both computer sciences and mathematics. Contribution is open for researchers of all nationalities. One volume of the Journal is published each year. Each volume consists of two issues,from 2013 each volume consists of four issues. Authors wishing to submit an article for publication should send their manuscript by the journal E-mail to rjcm_2003@yahoo.com as Word format. All correspondence regarding the journal should be sent to the Editorial...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  rjcm_2003@yahoo.com

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. Raida Dawood Mahmood

ISSN: 1815-4816

Adaptation of a Mosquito Swarm Algorithm to Solve a Binary Knapsack Problem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 13-24

The paper tackled one of the artificial intelligence algorithms which is Mosquito swarm algorithm as a nature inspired algorithms, to solve 0-1 knapsack an optimization problem through adaptation steps of a Mosquito swarm algorithm and the inspiration coming from the behavior of Mosquitoes, in addition to propose steps (update) for Chemical sensors, Heat sensors and location of Mosquito, to find an optimal solution in small search space and small computational requirements. A program is written in MATLAB 7.10. language to simulate this algorithm with 0-1 knapsack problem. The experimental results in this research showed effective approach, easy implementation of algorithm to find optimal solution. .

On Almost Weakly np – injective Rings

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 25-30

The ring R is called right almost weakly np – injective, if for any a∈N_2 (R), there exists a positive integer n and a left ideal X_(a^n ) of R such that lr(a^n )=Ra^n⨁X_(a^n ). In this paper, we give some characterization and properties of almost weakly np – injective rings. And we study the regularity of right almost weakly np – injective ring and in the same time, when every simple (simple singular) right R – module is almost weakly np – injective, we also give some properties of an R. R.

On Annihilating - Ideal Graph of Zn

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 31-42

In this paper, we study and give some properties of annihilating-ideal graphs of Zn, also we find Hosoya polynomial and Wiener index for this graph.
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The Application of Some Linear Feedback Control Strategies on 3D Chaotic System

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 43-51

This paper tackles to some linear feedback control strategies, where we take a 3D chaotic system with a five critical point of unstability, which is discovered by scientist [Zhu Congxu, 2010]. So we applied some linear feedback strategies: first strategy Ordinary Feedback Control and the second strategy Dislocate Feedback Control on this system at origin point and we noticed that a necessary condition for suppression is getting positive feedback coefficient; but this condition fails at some strategies. For this reason, we focused on these cases in our search, and design more than a strategy for studying these different situations. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation check the validity of the results obtained..

Using "Filter" Approach to Solve the Constrained Optimization Problems

Baan A. Metras

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 99-107

الملخص في هذا البحث تم اقتراح خوارزمية جديدة لحل مسائل البرمجة غير الخطية المقيدة باستخدام البرمجة التربيعية المتدرجة. الهدف من هذا العمل هو تقديم حل للوصول إلى تقارب شامل للطريقة الداخلية والخارجية بدون الحاجة إلى استخدام كل من دالة الجزاء ودالة الحاجز وإنما استخدم بدل منها أسلوب جديد وهو"المرشح" والذي يهدف الى تقليل دالة الهدف وهو اسلوب يسمح للنقطة ان تقبل إذا تمكنت من تقليل دالة الهدف مع تحقق القيود واذا لم تتمكن فسوف تُرفض تلك النقطة ويتم اختبار نقطة جديدة. الاختبارات العددية على المدى الواسع لمسائل الاختبار كانت مشجعة جدا".ABSTRACT In this paper, the solution of constrained nonlinear programming problems by a Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) is considered. The aim of the present work is to promote global convergence without the need to use a penalty and Barrier functions in the mixed interior-exterior point method. Instead, a new concept of a “filter” that aims to minimize the objective function and its approach that allows appoint to be accepted if reduces the objective function and satisfies the constraint violation function. If that point is rejected a new point is tested. Numerical tests on a wide range of test problems are very encouraging.

Convergence Analysis of the Finite Difference Solutionfor the Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equation

Ekhlass S. Al-Rawi

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 101-113

الملخصيختص هذا البحث باشتقاق معادلة المصفوفة الجبرية لمعادلةKlein-Gordon غير الخطية ذات البعد الواحد التي نحصل عليها من استخدام طريقة الفروقات المنتهية الضمنية , وتمت دراسة وتحليل تقارب الحل. وقد أجريت الحسابات العددية وكانت الحلول مستقرّة ومتقاربة في حالة استخدام دالة الجيب كشرط ابتدائي. ABSTRACTThis paper is devoted to drive the matrix algebraic equation for the one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation which is obtained from using the implicit finite difference method. The convergence analysis of the solution is discussed. Numerical computations are conducted and the solutions are stable and convergent when the sine function is used as an initial condition.

An Algorithm For The Best Way Connection Among Cell-Phone Towers Using Feedforward Neural Network

Yahya Q. Ibrahim; Thamir Abdul Hafed Jarjis; Kais I. Ibraheem

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 197-209

الملخصيتناول هذا البحث نهج جديد لطريقة توزيع أبراج الهاتف المحمول. وتم استخدام الشبكة العصبية الاصطناعية ذات التغذية الأمامية التي جعلت من الممكن التغلب على بعض العيوب السابقة والتي تتمثل بالتوزيع العشوائي للأبراجتم تطبيق الخوارزمية المقترحة على عينة من إحداثيات أبراج الهاتف المحمول الافتراضية الموزعة في مدينة الموصل. وتبين النتائج أن الخوارزمية المقترحة دقيقة بما فيه الكفاية لاستخدامها في التخطيط لنظام توزيع أبراج الهاتف المحمول.ABSTRACTA new approach for mobile radio towers is presented in this paper. The use of feed-forward artificial neural network makes it possible to overcome some important disadvantages of previous random distribution of the towers. Our sample implementation is based upon the coordinates of a virtual cell phone towers distributed in Mosul city. The results show that the proposed algorithm is sufficiently accurate for use in planning mobile towers distribution system.

Arabic Character Recognition Using Fractal Dimension

Karam H. AL-Bajary; Khalil I. Alsaif

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 169-178

الملخص في هذا البحث استخدام مفهوم تمييز الأنماط لغرض تمييز الحروف العربية المطبوعة. تم استخدام طريقة أبعاد الهندسة الكسرية في هذا العمل . يتم ادخال الصورة باستخدام الماسح الضوئي وتكون من نوع bmp ، وبعد ذلك تغذى هذه الصورة الى نظام تمييز الحرف الضوئي (OCR). استخدم في البحث ابعاد الهندسة الكسرية لاستخلاص الخواص الخاصة بالحرف العربي، وهذه الخواص هي التي تستخدم في طور التمييز ، حيث يتم عمل مقارنة بين قيم الخواص المستخلصة وقيم الحرف المدخل لغرض التمييز وتمت هذه المقارنة باستخدام المسافة الاقليدية الصغرى . تم الحصول على 75% من النتائج الصحيحة واستخدمت لغة Matlab 6.5 لبناء الدوال والبرامج الفرعية لهذا البحث .ABSTRACT In this work the concepts of the pattern recognition was used to recognize printed Arabic characters, and the Fractal geometric dimension method was used. The input for the system is image, with bitmap format , then the image of character is recognized, and after that it is feeding to the OCR system. A feature space containing the values of the fractal dimension for the letters of Arabic was constructed. These features were used in the recognition phase. In this phase a comparison was made between the values in the feature space and the values of the letter inputs to be recognized, the comparison was done by the minimum Euclidian distance. Results of this work are 75% succeeded. and Matlab 6.5 is used to write the functions and subroutines for this work.

State of Art: Semantic Web

Najla B. Ibraheem; Ban Sh. Mustafa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 177-186

Semantic Web is an extension to the current web. It will convert the way we use World Wide Web (WWW) by giving the machine the capability to process and infer data in web. It starts as a vision and becomes a future trend in web.
Due to the huge data that is scattered as web pages in web today, adding semantic meaning to data stored in these pages became necessary for the next age of information technology. The Semantic Web will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages, creating an environment where software agents roaming from page to page can readily carry out sophisticated tasks for users. Several tools and new technologies have been emerged to help bring this vision to reality.
In this paper, Semantic Web is defined and described with its layering architecture and supporting technologies and tools. An example is given to show how to use these tools to semantically representing data model. At last, challenges and difficulties faced building this web and made it an extension to the current web has been discussed.

Numerical solution of non-linear prey-predator system using finite elements method

Ahmed F. Qasem; Saad A. Manaa

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 113-133

الملخص تم حل نظام لاخطي من علم المجتمعات الاحيائية هو نظام prey-predator عدديا باستخدام طريقة Galerkin العددية ثم قورنت النتائج مع نتائج الباحث Pius Peter Nyaanga [6] والذي استخدم طريقة الفروقات المنتهية في حل النظام وقد تبين أن طريقة Galerkin أسرع في الوصول إلى حالة التوازن وهي الحالة التي تكون فيها كثافة و متساوية لكل قيم x و , كما أن طريقة Galerkin أكثر دقة وأسرع من طريقة الفروقات المنتهية في الوصول إلى steady state solutions وبخطوات زمنية اقل.ABSTRACT A non-linear prey-predator system solved numerically by Galerkin method, and we compare these results with the results of Pius Peter Nyaanga[6] who used finite difference methods, we found that Galerkin finite elements method is faster than finite difference method to reach equilibrium state where the density for the prey and the predator are equals for all the values for and , also we found that Galerkin method converges towards the steady state solutions faster than finite difference method with less steps in time.

Hiding Sensitive Frequent Itemsets over Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining

Sufyan T. F. Al-Janabi; Alaa Kh. Juma; Nazar A. Ali

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 91-105

Data mining is the process of extracting hidden patterns from data. One of the most important activities in data mining is the association rule mining and the new head for data mining research area is privacy of mining. Privacy preserving data mining is a new research trend in privacy data for data mining and statistical database. Data mining can be applied on centered or distributed databases. Most efficient approaches for mining distributed databases suppose that all of the data at each site can be shared. Privacy concerns may prevent the sites from directly sharing the data, and some types of information about the data. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) has become increasingly popular because it allows sharing of privacy sensitive data for analysis purposes.
In this paper, the problem of privacy preserving association rule mining in horizontally distributed database is addressed by proposing a system to compute a global frequent itemsets or association rules from different sites without disclosing individual transactions. Indeed, a new algorithm is proposed to hide sensitive frequent itemsets or sensitive association rules from the global frequent itemsets by hiding them from each site individually. This can be done by modifying the original database for each site in order to decrease the support for each sensitive itemset or association rule. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm hides rules in a distributed system with the good execution time, and with limited side effects. Also, the proposed system has the capability to calculate the global frequent itemsets from different sites and preserves the privacy for each site.

Modifying Explicit Finite Difference Method by Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Omar S. Kasim

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 171-186

In this research, we use artificial neural networks, specifically radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) to improve the performance and work of the explicit finite differences method (EFDM), where it was compared, the modified method with an explicit finite differences method through solving the Murray equation and showing by comparing results with the exact solution that the improved method by using (RBFNN) is the best and most accurate by giving less error rate through root mean square error (RMSE) from the classical method (EFDM).

GP-Stability of Linear Multistep Methods for Delay Retarded Differential Equations with Several Delays

Reyadh S. Naoum; Ann J. Al-Sawoor; Abbas Y. Al-Bayati

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 21-33

الملخص يطور هذا البحث الحل العددي لمسائل القيم الابتدائية للمعادلات التفاضلية ذات التأخير الزمني وذلك من خلال تناولها لمعادلات تفاضلية ذات تأخير زمني من النوع المعوق (RDEs) وبتأخير زمني متعدد ذات الصيغة: حيث أن هي ثوابت موجبة ، و تمثل دوال ذات قيمة اتجاهية. يهتم هذا البحث بدراسة سلوك الاستقرارية لطرق المتعددة الخطوات الخطية لمسائل (RDEs). فلقد تم استنتاج أن طرق المتعددة الخطوات هي مستقرة -GP إذا كانت مستقرة - A للمعادلات التفاضلية الاعتيادية. ABSTRACT This paper modifies the numerical solution of initial value problems of the Delay Differential Equations (DDEs) by making it deals with Retarded Differential Equations (RDEs) with several delays where are positive constants, and denote given vector-valued functions. The stability behaviors of linear multistep method for RDEs is studied and it is proved that the linear multistep method is GP-stable if it is A-stable for Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs).

The Finite Difference Methods for Klein-Gordon Equation

Laya Y. Hawell; Saad A. Manna

AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 47-63

الملخص تم حل معادلةKlein-Gordon عدديا باستخدام طريقتين من طرائق الفروقات المنتهية : الاولى هي الطريقة الصريحة والثانية هي الطريقة الضمنية ((Crank-Nicholson ثم تمت دراسة الاستقرارية العددية لكلتا الطريقتين وتبين من خلال دراسة الحل والاستقرارية بان الطريقة الصريحة هي الاسهل و الاسرع تقاربا من الطريقة الضمنية بينما الطريقة الضمنية هي الادق كذلك الطريقة الصريحة مستقرة بشروط بينما الطريقة الضمنية مستقرة من دون شرط.ABSTRACT We solved Klein-Gordon equation numerically by using two finite difference methods: The first is the explicit method and the second is the implicit (Crank-Nicholson) method. Also, we studied the numerical stability of the two methods using Fourier (Von Neumann) method and it has been found that the first method is simpler and has faster convergence while the second method is more accurate, and the explicit method is conditionally stable while the implicit method is unconditionally stable.

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